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43 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, no. 43 / 2015


Recent Submissions

  • Chybowski, Leszek; Montewka, Jakub (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    With great pleasure we present the 43rd issue of the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, a quarterly journal, which published original work on maritime-related topics such as improved safety and environmental protection. The Marine Engineering and Innovation section contains a series of articles about operational safety, minimization of energy consumption and modern control systems. The section entitled Navigation and Maritime Transport focuses on maritime SAR missions, collision avoidance and navigational safety improvements for maritime traffic. The Transportation Engineering section contains articles on ship operations in extreme conditions such as among ice floes, close to offshore wind farms and in pirate-infested waters. Readers who wish to send us any comments and suggestions concerning the development of our journal are welcome to do so any time. Authors are invited to submit original studies on a broad range of maritime- -related topics. To access the electronic version of the current and back issues please visit the journals website available at http://scientific-journals.eu/.
  • Cepowski, Tomasz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents the concept of modeling a ship’s operating parameters in order to minimize the fuel consumption in real weather conditions. This is an important innovation because, in ship theory, fuel consumption and speed are usually expressed by average values over longer periods of time, which is a significant limitation. This article presents selected topics of the proposed research such as state-of-the-art, general objectives, scientific and technical expectations, scientific and economic extensions, and environmental impacts. The article also proposes an original method of the research.
  • Chybowski, Leszek; Gawdzińska, Katarzyna; Ślesicki, Oskar; Patejuk, Kamil; Nowosad, Grzegorz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents basic information about the prevention of explosions and fires in marine engines, with particular reference to explosions in the crankcase. It also discusses the possibility of using engine room simulators in educating marine officer engineers to prevent dangerous situations during actual marine diesel operation. Two scenarios have been shown that illustrate the developments in the case of improper operation of main bearings while the operation of an engine safety system is intact and there is lack/override/failure of safety systems. In scenario I the main engine shut down occurs and scenario II simulates an explosion in the crankcase.
  • Miller, Anna; Rybczak, Monika (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Controllers based on linear matrix inequalities (LMI) and model predictive control (MPC) both use optimization methods; there are however significant differences between them. In case of LMI controllers, optimization is carried out during controller synthesis, because LMI’s are an optimization tool that requires a linear programming problem being solved. With MPC controllers, however, optimization methods are not used as much in controller synthesis as in controller algorithm operation, to determine optimal control signal values based on the found minimum of the criteria function. A square function is used with boundaries from above and below, which requires a square programming problem, with boundaries for decision variables, being solved. In this paper controller synthesis methods using LMI and MPC are shown, with a focus on the steps that need to be performed, and a comparison of both methods.
  • Pawlak, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents a method of evaluating irradiance, spectral irradiance, and spectral radiance, for purposes of determining risk groups of sources of light. The description of the method of measurement of radiance incorporates standard and alternative methods. Measurement methods were developed on the basis of general requirements and diagrams incorporated in the standard PN-EN 62471: 2010. The paper classifies risk groups of sources of light in terms of photobiological hazards and exposure limits when skin is at risk of being damaged by visible and infrared radiation. Threshold values of emissions for the continuous sources of radiation studied are presented. The article describes environmental conditions under which the measurements are to be taken, and requirements applicable to the process of light source aging. In addition, technical assumptions are presented, and the design of the test stand for measuring optical radiation parameters is described.
  • Baldauf, Michael; Mehdi, Raza; Deeb, Hasan; Schröder-Hinrichs, Jens Uwe; Benedict, Knud; Krüger, Caspar; Fischer, Sandro; Gluch, Michael (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Rapidly increasing numbers of ships and ship sizes pose an ever-growing challenge to the maritime industry. Although statistics indicate improved levels of safety in the industry which carries 90% of the world’s trade, the risk of navigational accidents, among other issues, remains a prime concern and priority (EMSA, 2010; 2014). In order to address these concerns, the authors turned to another high-risk industry for inspiration. Specifically, they turned to the aviation industry, which has often been used as a source of comparisons and ideas by researchers in the maritime domain. Keeping up with the trend, the authors of this paper turn to a tried-and-tested system used widely in modern aviation: the Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS). The prime idea behind ACAS is to construct two virtual 3D zones around an aircraft. These zones are dynamic, and depend on the manoeuvring characteristics of a given aircraft. If the system detects an “intruder” (another aircraft) in either of the two well-defined virtual zones, it provides warnings and/or instructions to pilots of both aircraft to take certain precautionary or emergency measures. In the current paper, the authors explore whether or not such a system is feasible for use in the maritime domain and, if so, how. The paper provides a detailed analysis of the potential benefits and drawbacks of using an ACAS-like system onboard vessels. It also discusses possible means of implementation and integration with current equipment, and explores how the introduction of e-navigation may impact the proposed solution.
  • Brake, Miriam C. ter; Iperen, Erwin (W.H.) van; Looije, Daphne; Koldenhof, Yvonne (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    navigation is automated by on-board decision-making systems. Important motives for unmanned ships include the shortage of skilled mariners, the facilitation of slow steaming strategies, efficiency improvements in confined shipping areas, and increased safety. The aim of the present research is to simulate an unmanned ship through an Automatic Identification System (AIS) based traffic situation. In order to do this, the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands (MARIN) will use the existing simulation technology Dolphin, implement a new tool to read AIS data, simulate a large amount of ships, and develop an auto-captain. The real-time dynamic risk index developed by MARIN will be integrated in Dolphin, to monitor nautical safety of all ships with focus on the unmanned ship. The simulated unmanned ship will navigate according to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS). In more complex situations, the auto-captain may use a dedicated decision support tool to find a more efficient solution to pass safely. This approach will be analysed using the real-time dynamic risk index, which will be updated based on latest insights. This paper will discuss the latest development and plans in the unmanned ship simulation project.
  • Goerlandt, Floris; Venäläinen, Emilia; Siljander, Mika (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In many sea areas there is significant recreational activity, with many sailing vessels and motor boats navigating, especially in coastal areas. Search and Rescue (SAR) organizations ensure the safety of people at sea, and are relatively frequently called to perform rescue or assistance missions to people in distress. Apart from the importance of adequate operational planning and training, rescue organizations benefit from establishing a robust, effective and cost-efficient response system. Risk-informed capacity planning can serve as a decision-support tool for determining the number and location of the required search and rescue units (SRUs). The purpose of this paper is to present such a risk-informed approach, which combines analysis of historic accident and incident data of recreational boating with information derived from Geographic Information System (GIS) methods. The method is applied to a case study focusing on the risk-informed capacity evaluation of the voluntary search and rescue services in the Finnish part of the Gulf of Finland. Results indicate that the response performance for recreational boating incidents is very good in most areas.
  • Goncharov, Vadim (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    It is well-known that operator error – “human factor” – is the cause of most accidents. This is a great concern to navigators. Recent crashes of ferries with large numbers of human victims have occurred because of navigator errors or because of their inability to make adequate decisions in an unexpectedly arisen emergency. This paper presents a possible method for quantitative estimation of the “human factor” based on analysis of the physical and mental conditions of the operator and the working environment.
  • Rong, Hao; Teixeira, Angelo; Soares, Carlos Guedes (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper evaluates near ship-ship collision situations in the Tagus River Estuary using a simulation model of ship navigation in restricted waters. The simulation model consists of a ship collision avoidance model based on the Artificial Potential Field (APF) method, which has been improved to account for the lateral distribution of traffic along the route, the ship type and length and speed development of the ships along the trajectory. AIS data of ships entering and leaving the port of Lisbon are analysed to obtain the main characteristics of traffic parameters used as input for the traffic simulation model, such as: the routes of the vessels, speed distribution along the routes, traffic density and characteristics of the ships in each route, among others. First, the improved model of ship navigation and the Monte Carlo simulation technique are used to simulate the marine traffic in the Tagus River Estuary. Then, the concept of “ship domain” is used as collision criterion to determine the number of near collisions and the locations where they are most likely to occur. Finally, the simulation results are compared to the ones obtained from raw AIS data to assess the capability of the simulation model for marine traffic risk analysis.
  • Sonninen, Maikki; Goerlandt, Floris (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The environmental conditions in the Gulf of Finland vary significantly in different locations. In addition, the gulf is a busy and important area for waterway traffic and international trade throughout the year. In summer, the area is ideal for recreational activities such as boating and other water-related activities. Water accidents occur due to different factors and under varying weather conditions. This paper introduces a visual data mining analysis applied to Search and Rescue (SAR) missions related to recreational boating. Starting from a SAR operations database, an integrated database was constructed by adding weather and wave data. The aim was to compare the different mission types as well as the activity of different SAR organisations during challenging wind and wave conditions. The investigation was performed using visual analysis techniques. The densest areas of challenging wind and wave conditions were found in the western and eastern parts of the gulf. Other investigated parameters were travelled distances and occurrence of the incidents during different times of day. A more detailed analysis was conducted for one dataset.
  • Goncharov, Vadim; Klementieva, Natalia; Zueva, Ekaterina (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    During winter in arctic seas, navigation of ships near ports occurs within ice channels created and maintained by icebreakers. Small ice floes fill the relatively narrow navigable channel, and ships are forced to produce the overtaking or opposing separation over short distances and under the action of ice floes. This paper presents an analytical model of the interaction of ships under the conditions just described as well as the results of a simulation. The simulation showed side force and yawing moments were dependent on ice conditions and the ship’s dimensions and motion characteristics.
  • Rawson, Andrew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The development of offshore renewable energy installations can introduce additional hazards to the safe navigation of shipping in often already crowded waterways. Developers and decision makers must predict and properly manage the potential risks imposed on navigating vessels from wind farm developments, in a complex and uncertain environment. Considerable analysis has been undertaken to model navigational risks to vessel traffic around wind farms; however this work is generally predictive and there is little understanding as to whether the modelling, central to the consideration of navigation safety, accurately reflects the postconstructed navigation risks. It is therefore important for decision makers to understand the uncertainties present in the analysis, both in terms of the assessment of risk and the implementation of any risk reduction measures. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the change in vessel traffic in the Thames Estuary before and after the construction of five offshore wind farms. The analysis demonstrates how the impact on vessel traffic is specific to the location of each development, driven by traffic management measures and other local constraints. Therefore the accurate modelling of this impact requires the input of experienced navigators, regulators and other knowledgeable stakeholders. The results of this analysis can be used to improve the predictive modelling of vessel traffic around offshore wind farms and other offshore installations, leading to a reduction in the uncertainty of vessel traffic modelling in the future.
  • Sormunen, Otto-Ville Edvard; Hänninen, Maria; Häkkinen, Jani; Posti, Antti (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Groundings and ship collisions are the two most frequent accident types in the Gulf of Finland, which in the past decades has seen an increase in tanker traffic. This has mainly been oil transport from Russia. Both accident types pose a major hazard to the marine ecosystem, as spills of catastrophic magnitude can occur as a consequence. In order to better plan for the response to and/or prevention of accidents, the frequency and size of spills should be known. This paper estimates the expected number of tanker groundings of different tanker types for the busiest tanker ports in the Finnish part of the Gulf of Finland. Furthermore, in this paper statistics of the sizes of chemical, gas and oil tankers visiting Finnish ports is presented. Finally, the expected number and size of spills is estimated based on the expected number of groundings and the tanker sizes using a spill model based on tanker deadweight (DWT).
  • Vaňek, Ondřej; Hrstka, Ondřej; Kopřiva, Štěpán; Faigl, Jan; Pěchouček, Michal (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Contemporary maritime shipping is subject to a large number of constraints given by tight shipping schedules and very low margins. Additionally, problematic areas with increased security needs dynamically changing in time, combined with seasonal oceanographic and meteorological conditions pose a challenging voyage planning problem. In this work we present a risk-aware voyage planner taking into account spatio-temporal environmental conditions. The planner is based on a graph-based search algorithm A*. We discretize the required area into a graph, we store various layers of information into the edges of the graph (such as risk and weather conditions) in a form of numeric weights and we define a bi-objective planning problem with a tradeoff between security and duration of the voyage. The nature of the algorithm guarantees a complete and optimal solution in a form of an optimized voyage with respect to the criterion function composed of the two weighted components, i.e, duration and security of the voyage. We demonstrate the approach on our area of interest: Indian Ocean. We use NATO piracy activity risk surface as the risk layer and we compute all transit voyages between relevant routing points in the area. Finally, thanks to the discretization of the problem, we are able to integrate corridors imposed by the shipping authorities and evaluate additional what-if scenarios with extended corridor systems. The resulting planner is exposed to the public using a web service with an easy interface requiring start time of the voyage and the origin and the destination point of voyage. Combined with an expressive visualization, this tool demonstrates the capabilities of the proposed solution.
  • Zalesińska, Małgorzata; Wandachowicz, Krzysztof (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    An emergency escape lighting system based on Low Location Lighting on passenger ships is required to ensure proper visual guidance to allow safe egress routes for evacuation of the ship’s deck, even in very dense smoke. LLL system components must be installed in specific locations of the escape route, as well as exhibiting the required photometric characteristics within a specified time after triggering. The luminance decrease curve for materials used for the surfaces of LLL system components depends on a number of factors, e.g. spectral distribution of light sources and light exposure parameters. Ascertaining the influence of specific factors allows optimization of the proper means of material exposure to achieve the required photometric characteristics. This article presents the normative requirements for LLL systems installed on passenger ships regarding their placement and photometric characteristics. It presents actual working conditions for LLL systems and laboratory test results for two photoluminescent materials, as well as formulating recommendations to ensure proper working conditions for the LLL system.

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