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60 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, no. 60 / 2019


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  • Jasionowski, Robert (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, It is my great pleasure to present to you the latest issue of the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University in Szczecin in a new graphical layout which will be used in the forthcoming 10 issues. This issue, No. 60 (132), is the last one of this year, so I would like to use my position as Editor-in-Chief to briefly summarise the current year. In 2019, the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University in Szczecin published 69 scientific papers prepared by 129 authors (in total, without republishing). Among them, 19.37% of authors had a foreign affiliation, and the greatest contribution came from Nigerian researchers, with 6 authors. We also received contributions from 5 Ukrainian authors, 4 Croatian authors, and 4 scientists from Iran. In addition, I would like to inform you that on 9 October 2019, the Scientific Journals Evaluation Team of Index Copernicus International delivered the assessment of our quarterly according to the ICV indicator – the Index Copernicus Value. The Index Copernicus International Team evaluates scientific journals from all over the world. Journals are then included in the ICI Journals Master List database. The scientific journals are reviewed in two categories: 1 – the quality of the journal, which includes: editorial standards, publishing frequency and regularity, online availability, and internationalisation; 2 – analysis of citation trends of the journal based on the ISI Web of Science and Scopus. The Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin generated a ICV score of 99.59 for 2018, which was slightly lower than the 2017 value of 100 ICV. It should be stated that this is still a strong result because a score above 100 ICV can usually be obtained by journals with current IF and SJR indices. This issue of the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University in Szczecin presents results of twenty-seven research papers in five sections: Civil Engineering and Transport, Environmental Engineering, Mining and Energy, Management and Quality Studies, Mechanical Engineering, and Miscellaneous. The Civil Engineering and Transport section, includes eight papers which are mainly devoted to the issues of transport, including maritime, inland, rail, or motor vehicle. The authors discussed the economic, social, safety, and ecological aspects of particular modes of transportation and also presented new solutions with possible future applications. The Environmental Engineering, Mining, and Energy section, features two articles. Both papers showcase problems with environmental protection. The first article outlines the development of pro-ecological investments in Poland from 2014–2020, including an analysis of investment risks. The authors of the second paper present the results of research on the application of new mathematical models in cheaper devices capable of measuring PM10 concentrations. 6 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin 60 (132) The Management and Quality Studies section contains ten articles. The authors discuss issues related to managing methods of transport for better economic results, the impact of e-commerce on transport development and the economy, and recent innovations in e-commerce. There is also research on social issues related to managing the operations of a seaport and individual workers. The Mechanical Engineering section contains four articles. The authors of the first paper discuss ideas related to the determination of steam injector operating parameters for different drive steam parameters. The next article is devoted to the reliability and availability of fire alarm systems on ships. The third paper presents an analysis of vertical shear forces and bending moments during nodule loading for a standard bulk carrier in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone. The last article in this thematic group describes the results of simulation-based and academic research on child safety seat suspension. The last section, Miscellaneous, contains three articles on very different topics. The first paper presents research on the properties of Annona Muricata and its possible future applications as a medicinal component. The second paper discusses the cooperation between China and Central Asian, Middle Eastern, African, and European countries. The third article discloses research results on the influence of intellectual property on the economic development of a country. Finally, I would like to take this opportunity to encourage authors from all over the world to publish their articles in our scientific journal – the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin. Readers are welcome to visit our website, http://scientific-journals.eu/, where they may access the online version of the current issue as well as archival issues.
  • Abramowicz-Gerigk, Teresa; Burciu, Zbigniew; Jachowski, Jacek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Low controllability under strong winds presents a problem for the operation of inland vessels, which can be improved using passive bow rudders and transverse thrusters. Bow thrusters can sufficiently improve the manoeuvrability at low speeds, but an unsolved problem is course maintaining and yaw checking of a vessel at medium and high speeds. This paper proposes the use of a bow steering system in which the bow rotors generate a Magnus force. The first physical test model of the system showed promising results and that much more research must be performed before this system can be used in industrial applications. The paper presents the results of a numerical study on the flow field generated by bow rotors. The first stage of a ship’s turn using the bow rotors was used to determine the dependence of the expected steering force on the inflow velocity and rotational speed of the rotors. The influence of the flow generated by the bow steering system on river banks and quay walls during manoeuvres was also discussed.
  • Dąbrowski, Paweł S.; Specht, Cezary; Koc, Władysław; Wilk, Andrzej; Czaplewski, Krzysztof; Karwowski, Krzysztof; Specht, Mariusz; Chrostowski, Piotr; Szmagliński, Jacek; Grulkowski, Sławomir (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Determining the course of a railway track axis using satellite methods relies on ensuring the precise assembly of GNSS receivers in dedicated measuring devices. Depending on the number of receivers, solutions that are based on placing the apparatus directly above the railway track axis (as well as in eccentric positions) are used to indirectly obtain data to form the basis of the desired results. This publication describes the installation of five GNSS receivers on a mobile measuring platform as part of the InnoSatTrack project. The methodology and the procedure of the geodetic measurements required to obtain the geometrical configuration of the measuring apparatus, specified in the technical project, are presented. The publication presents the principles of total station measurement methods as well as the steps taken to achieve precise results from staking out. The process of acquiring the same configuration of the GNSS receivers, based on the geometry of the squares on the two measuring platforms that were used in the research, has been shown. The final determination of the position of the receivers did not exceed an error of 0.010 m with an average error of 0.003 m, despite the occurrence of mounting difficulties. The results have demonstrated the high credibility and effectiveness of the presented solution.
  • Gerigk, Mateusz; Jachowski, Jacek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents an approach for providing innovative technology by applying fluid mechanics to the field of architectural design. The aim is to make a building’s shape profitable and strengthen environmental protection by using the wind force to create an integrated wind absorption definition for a multifunctional building system model. Furthermore, taking control of the wind flow over an object can have an impact on not only the designed object itself but also on its surroundings. In modern coastal cities there are issues associated with the wind and ventilation that need to be solved. The presented system model and the calculations conducted are part of the new definition of a multifunctional object and the wind force as a significant subsystem. Systematizing this scope can be useful in design practice.
  • Jurecki, Rafał S. (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents the legal requirements for shock absorbers in suspension, for a vehicle in which they are mounted to be allowed on Polish roads. A short description of the working methodology of the device used to determine the effectiveness of a shock absorber’s damping (sometimes referred to as relative wheel adhesion) is given on the basis of the Eusama method. The method of carrying out the tests on a sample of five passenger cars are described, along with the tests carried out at different temperatures for shock absorbers installed in a suspension system. The results of the diagnostic tests of the shock absorbers carried out on a diagnostic stand, in accordance with the Eusama method, are presented. The results confirm that the ambient conditions – the temperature of the chassis components (including the shock absorbers) – only slightly influence the values of their damping efficiency.
  • Kotowska, Izabela (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Transport is a considerable source of pollution in cities. The social impacts of transport activities result from emissions of pollutants, greenhouse gases, and noise, as well as traffic accidents. Not every urban investment that reduces such ‘external’ effects of transport will be found acceptable by the public. In order to assess and communicate the social impacts of investments, it is necessary to calculate external costs appropriately. This article discusses issues with estimating the social costs and benefits of transport-related investments in cities. The article also provides a classification of social benefits from urban transport investments and proposes a general methodology for estimating such benefits. Due to the versatility of urban investments, there can be no single, universal method. The article proposes methods for analysing social costs and benefits on the basis of two sample urban investments.
  • Maruszczak, Marianna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents the activities of the European Union (EU) and Poland to develop inland waterways as an environmentally-friendly transport method. The paper presents positive aspects of transferring part of the load from other methods of transport, such as railways or cars, to inland vessels. It shows the level of development of inland navigation in the EU and indicates favorable natural conditions for doing so. The article addresses the issues of the insufficient state of waterway infrastructure in Poland and presents measures to improve it. It also identifies the main EU and government programs seeking to standardize a common transport space of the EU by developing inland navigation.
  • Popik, Adrian; Zaniewicz, Grzegorz; Wawrzyniak, Natalia (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Video surveillance on both marine and inland waters still only plays a mainly auxiliary role in vessel traffic observation and management. The newest technical achievements in visual systems allow camera images to be used in more sophisticated tasks, such as automatic vessel recognition and identification in observed areas. With the use of deep learning algorithms and other artificial intelligence methods, such as rough sets and fuzzy sets, new functions can be designed and implemented in monitoring systems. In this paper the challenges that were encountered and the technology that has been developed in managing video streams are presented as well as the images needed for tests and proper operation of the designed Ship Recognition and Identification System (SHREC). The current technologies, typical setups and capabilities of cameras, with regard to existing on-water video monitoring systems, are also presented. The aspects of collecting the test data in the Szczecin Water Junction area are also described. The main part of the article focuses on presenting the video data pre-processing, storing and managing procedures that have been developed for the purposes of the SHREC system.
  • Szelangiewicz, Tadeusz; Żelazny, Katarzyna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents regression formulas for calculating the friction resistance RF and the total resistance RT of ship models in the 2.0–10.0 m range. The method for calculating the total resistance is novel and applies to the design models of an unmanned surface vessel (USV) for experimental testing of autonomous control. For both regression models (RF and RT), statistical and substantive tests were performed (the results of the calculations were compared with the experimental measurements). In both cases, convincing results were obtained, which have confirmed the possibility of their use at the preliminary design stage of unmanned ship models.
  • Gwizdała, Jerzy Piotr; Kędzierska-Szczepaniak, Angelika (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Environmental protection has increasingly adopted economic dimensions, and the environment is treated as a “capital” that can be used for economic and social development. This capital must be preserved for future generations, which is why increasing attention has been paid to taking pro-ecological actions to protect the environment. In order to improve the quality of the environment, it is necessary to make various types of investments in it. The Sustainable Development Initiative assumes that the economic growth of countries should be implemented in a manner consistent with the natural conditions of nature. The aim of this study was to identify and present the current possibilities of financing sustainability in Poland after joining the European Union, taking into account the risk of undertaking such an investment.
  • Owczarek, Tomasz; Rogulski, Mariusz; Czechowski, Piotr O. (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This study presents an assessment of the equivalence of measurements of particulate matter PM10 concentrations using a low-cost electronic device as compared to the reference method. Data for the study were collected in accordance with the guidelines for research equivalence of the two devices operating in parallel. On this basis, a model correcting raw measurement results was developed. The best results were obtained for the model having the form of a second degree polynomial and taking into account air temperature. Corrected measurement results were used in the equivalence testing procedure. As a result, confirmation of equivalence was obtained for the vast majority of data sets generated from original measurements. This confirms the usefulness of the device as a tool for monitoring air quality.
  • Czaja-Cieszyńska, Hanna; Kochański, Konrad (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The RESPECT Index (RI) is the first index of socially responsible companies in Central and Eastern Europe and has been operating in Poland since 2009. In accordance with its philosophy, the RI includes listed companies showing the highest standards of quality in corporate governance and information governance regarding their impacts on the natural environment, society, and employees. Do the non-financial reports of these companies confirm that they meet these standards? This article attempts to answer that question, which aim can also be described as the qualitative assessment of the non-financial reports of the largest listed Polish companies in the RESPECT Index, with particular emphasis on analyzing the structure and content of the companies’ non-financial information disclosures. In order to achieve this goal, the paper first defines non-financial information and its usefulness to stakeholders in modern enterprises. Secondly, the paper discusses problematic aspects of non-financial reporting. And the third part of the paper is a qualitative analysis of the non-financial reports of 12 out of the 31 Polish companies in the RESPECT Index. Finally conclusions are that the research conducted confirmed a wide variety of these companies’ disclosures, and on the other hand, exposed some deficiencies in published reports, including their narrative character, limited comparability across time and space, and lack of external verification. All this shows that it is not enough to be a socially responsible company; you must also report this activity skillfully. This study used the following research methods: literature review, analysis of legal regulations, desk research, and inductive and synthetic reasoning strategies, in order to formulate conclusions.
  • Dębicka, Olga; Gutowski, Tomasz; Borodo, Adam (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Development and innovation in the e-commerce sector over the last decade have been extremely dynamic. Market development has increasingly been driven by the changing behaviour of consumers shopping online and the growing number of e-stores. This article identifies the pro-innovation areas and actions which are creating special value propositions for e-buyers in Poland and assesses their impact on shopping decisions for each generation (X, Y, and baby boomers) by assessing the impacts of differences in the preferences of the generations regarding e-commerce. Each generation differs significantly from the others in terms of work, education, security, success in professional and personal life, and in terms of consumption. The characteristics of the individual generations and the levels of their digital competencies impact significantly on the ways in which a given generation makes purchases and what they expect during the purchasing process. In order to establish the key determinants of online purchasing decisions and attitudes towards innovation in e-commerce, an online survey was conducted. The sample included three generations of Polish internet users: 260 people at ages between 25 and 37 (generation Y); 200 people at ages between 38 and 50 (generation X) and 100 people at ages between 51 and 70 (the baby boomers’ generation). The structure of the article includes presentations of the problem against the background of relevant literature, the theoretical assumptions of the research, and its findings and conclusions.
  • Igielski, Michał (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents topics related to the main stakeholders of enterprises in the 21st century – employees operating in a market dominated by globalization and technological progress. To a large extent, they determine the competitive position of their organizations. To this end, the author describes the expectations of Polish employees as key stakeholders of the organization in which they are employed. Moreover, the author defines and describes the conditions that must be met to optimize the use of their potential. Good relations with this group of stakeholders is the basis for creating business strategies in the 21st century. The author also presents a description of his own research, which concerns the analysis of actions taken by companies aimed at creating optimal working conditions for their employees; this is also the main goal of this article. The analysis of source materials and research results indicated that employees played a large role in organizations and the need to implement dedicated tools and management methods. It should be obvious that the new economic realities force companies to invest in intangible resources, as it is thanks to them that it is possible to achieve market success. The main feature of companies that seek to achieve success is social sensitivity, which is manifested by a series of actions aimed at meeting the expectations of employees.
  • Kogut-Jaworska, Magdalena (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper explores the role of regional policy in strengthening the EU’s research and innovation policy paradigm, with a particular focus on smart specializations. These specializations play a major role in stimulating R&I at the regional level in less-developed regions of the EU. Smart specialization is the EU’s new concept for the regions; it assumes improvement in both innovation and competitiveness, based on endogenic potential; in particular, in already existing branches of the economy. Smart specializations should, by definition, concentrate economic resources on chosen priorities; one of these priorities is the growth of the blue economy. Smart specializations need to be clearly defined, only then can they contribute to economic growth when combined with proper management of public financial means. The objective of this paper is to introduce and characterize the assumptions for smart specializations and to assess the progress of their implementation and the necessary conditions required in Polish regions; particularly when referring to sectors of the blue economy.
  • Lubińska, Natalia (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents trade between China and Europe along the historical Silk Road, based on the materials from the Warsaw press published in the second half of the 19th century. The 19th century was a period of intense military actions led by the European empires in the Far East. The defeat of the Qing Dynasty during the Opium Wars marked the so-called cutting of the “Chinese cake” and the gradual fall of the empire. The events of this period caused an increased interest in the subject of the Middle Kingdom among Europeans and also in the Polish press.
  • Malkowska, Agnieszka (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The aim of this paper is to assess the utilization of selected transportation modes in services facilitating Polish foreign trade between 2010 and 2017. Poland’s foreign trade in commodities is characterized generally herein. The contribution of individual transport modes (i.e. road, rail, inland waterways, sea, or air) to facilitating Polish exports and imports is analyzed in terms of quantity and value. As research material, data from the Customs Administration Analytical Centre are used. Simple statistical and graphic methods (e.g., structural and dynamics indicators) are applied. Polish foreign trade in commodities grew between 2010 and 2017. At the same time, the shares of individual transport modes in facilitating exports and imports shifted, with transport by road remaining the largest contributor. Quantitatively, the share of road transport increased, in both exports and imports; however, a reverse trend was observed for its value.
  • Milewska, Beata (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper discusses logistics models of e-commerce implemented by Polish clothing companies. The author has conducted research on Polish clothing companies and logistics operators serving e-commerce branches, and here presents and compares these models. There are various logistics models of e-commerce, which differ from each other in organisation of deliveries, level of outsourcing, location for keeping stocks, level of logistics in customer service, and organisation of returns (goods returned by customers). The impact of the different e-commerce models on ecological, economic, and social priorities is then discussed.
  • Milewski, Dariusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The problem presented in this paper concerns the impact of e-commerce on transport costs, including external transport costs, compared with traditional shopping. E-commerce is a phenomenon of the modern economy that can significantly impact both the efficiency of the distribution of goods and on external transport costs. Although such a distribution system can increase the costs of freight transport to final consumers, it can also reduce traffic in cities and thus total external transport costs. In order to asses this impact, the author developed a simulation model and used it to conduct analyses. The analyses were based on available statistical data, data from the literature, and from the transportation market in Poland.
  • Oniszczuk-Jastrząbek, Aneta; Czermański, Ernest (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The exercise of the economic and social functions of maritime tourism has undergone significant changes in recent years. A case in point is the development of the maritime cruise fleet, in both quantitative and qualitative terms, across various regions. This is a result of, among other things, the changing needs of international tourists in particular regions. The worldwide expansion of globalization has also marked a turnaround in preferences, with customers now willing to visit regions formerly unattractive or rarely considered by tourists. These changes are also visible in the variety of transport modalities available to passengers for both domestic and international voyages. To a large extent, these changes stem from technological developments. New possibilities for quick and efficient passenger transport have contributed to transforming maritime tourism in many countries. This, in turn, has led to increasing volumes of tourist traffic, generating economic growth for such nations. This article discusses contemporary trends in the world’s cruise ship fleets in the context of the technical parameters of global cruise shipping. The authors have attempted to determine the basic quantitative parameters and metrics expected for characterizing the global cruise ship fleet. To accomplish this, the method of linear regression has been used, with the input data being the sizes of cruise ship fleets and some other characteristic parameters, during particular time periods, carrying capacities, registered tonnages, numbers of passenger cabins, main and auxiliary engine powers, and levels of fuel consumption. The econometric model of linear regression has allowed calculating the projected values for the nearest future.
  • Pluciński, Michał (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The issue of the impact of seaports on their direct vicinity has been repeatedly addressed in the academic literature. The developed merits of their impact is mainly related to employment in the port/port cluster, the seaport’s share of the municipality’s labour market, and the added value produced by the port/port cluster or the volume and structure of uncompensated flows into the municipality’s budget on account of the port’s operations. This article is aimed at providing an answer to the question of how to evaluate the impact of a new investment project in a seaport on its direct vicinity in a situation of low unemployment in the port’s municipality and the dominating tourism function in its economy. The research methodology was based on a single case study of the city of Świnoujście and the seaport in Świnoujście; the dominating economic function of this municipality is tourism. Moreover, it is the location of one of the four seaports with primary significance for the national economy. The development plans for the Szczecin & Świnoujście Seaports Authority include the construction of a deepwater container hub terminal. The investment will have an impact on the local social environment. The results of the conducted research studies are presented in the article both in a traditional approach enumerating the benefits of such an investment project for the local environment, as well as proposing a new approach to the evaluation of its benefits (inter alia, providing employment opportunities for people who so far have been forced to look for jobs outside the municipality and the long-term unemployed, preventing young and educated people from moving out of the municipality, attracting new inhabitants, improving the employment-to-population ratio, and stopping the city’s population ageing).
  • Adamkiewicz, Andrzej; Grzesiak, Szymon (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Due to the development of alternative propulsion systems, there is a need for LNG tanker turbine propulsion plants to regain their competitiveness. Previous research revealed effective methods to increase the thermal efficiency of the steam cycle based on quality assessment, and it was proposed that the latent heat of the main turbine exhaust steam could be recovered. Research was carried out for the steam cycle using regenerative heat exchangers fed by steam jet injectors. In this paper, an algorithm to determine the operating parameters of steam jet injectors, and the calculation results for different drive steam parameters are presented. The obtained results will be used as input parameters for further heat balance calculations of the proposed regenerative steam cycles.
  • Bistrović, Miroslav (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Today, every industry is striving for the highest efficiency and best economic results possible, with the greatest possible competitiveness. But in maritime affairs, human safety and environmental protection are the foundations of sustainability. To achieve this, marine systems must be reliable, high quality and easy to maintain. Because of this, reliability has become an important factor in safety, which remains relevant throughout the lifetimes of ship systems, including fire alarm systems. In this paper we address a number of issues connected with the reliability – and ‘availability’ of these systems. Firstly, ship fire alarm systems consist of various components whose individual reliability affect the system’s overall reliability. Discussions of reliability in ship fire alarm systems normally focus on the length of a system’s useful life or performance during design-based fire events. In addition to the reliability of systems, their availability for use is also crucial given the possibility that the system may need to operate at any point in time.
  • Cepowski, Tomasz; Kacprzak, Paweł (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents an analysis of vertical shear forces and bending moments during nodule loading in the case of a standard bulk carrier around the Clarion–Clipperton Zone. An operational efficiency index was applied to an assessment of internal forces during loading which took into account wave heights and periods around this zone. The aim of this research was to investigate whether waves could have a negative effect on loading efficiency and to estimate the nodule mass that can safely be loaded onto a standard bulk carrier taking these waves into account. Moreover, a calculation was made to discover the acceptable vertical shear force percentage limit, while also taking into account wave activity during loading.
  • Zuska, Andrzej; Więckowski, Dariusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents the results of laboratory simulation tests of a suspension system for a car seat. The first part of the paper contains a description of the experiment, paying particular attention to the conditions in which the tests were conducted and the properties of the electrically controlled damper, which was mounted in the tested car seat’s suspension. Graphs of the damper’s operation were determined for different values of current intensity and the signal controlling the damper’s damping ratio and then the damping characteristics were determined on this basis. Simulated tests of the car seat’s suspension were carried out on a car component test station. During the tests, the values measured were the acceleration recorded at selected points on the dummy, which was placed on a seat equipped with suspension using a magnetorheological (MR) damper during the experiment. The second part of the paper presents an analysis of the results of the experimental tests with particular emphasis on the influence of the current that controls the operation of the damper on the values of the RMS index of the acceleration at selected points of the dummy.
  • Oluyege, J.O.; Orjiakor, P.I. (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    All over the world, the use of medicinal plants is gaining more acceptability due to the possibility of discovering novel drugs from them and solving the problem of antimicrobial resistance associated with conventional antibiotics. The phytochemical composition and antimicrobial properties of crude extracts of the leaves, stems, and bark of Annona muricata were evaluated on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typimurium, while the antifungal properties were evaluated against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The Agar well method was used for the study. At concentrations of 150 mg/ml and 300 mg/ml, inhibitory effects were observed on E. coli and S. aureus, with a visible zone of inhibition ranging from 15 mm to 21 mm respectively, and with respect to N- hexane, an antimicrobial activity range of 5 mm to 20 mm, for the leaf extract, which shows effective antimicrobial action against E. coli and S. aureus. Hot water extracts were observed to possess more bioactive compounds compared to organic solvent extracts, and exhibit higher ranges of activity against the tested bacterial species. All extracts exhibited low anti-fungal activity in the range of 8 mm to 15 mm. The phytochemical screening of the extracts of different parts of A. muricata revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, and cardiac glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was compared with a standard antibiotic, ketoconazole, and with ampicillin, which served as the controls). The results showed that A. muricata can be used as an anti-bacterial substance, since it shows broad spectrum activity against a range of bacteria responsible for the most common bacterial illnesses. Further research will be necessary to ascertain its full spectrum of efficacy.
  • Paliszewska-Mojsiuk, Monika (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is focused on extending the cooperation between China and the countries of Central Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe. The five goals laid out by the Chinese government, along with unimpeded trade and financial integration, include people-to-people bonds. This last goal is to be achieved by education and international academic cooperation. In 2016, China’s Ministry of Education provided a detailed framework that stated which educational projects may be implemented within the BRI. The aim of this research is to analyze, based on the official documents proposed by Chinese ministries, the variety of educational programs offered by the Chinese government to the BRI countries. Furthermore, their strengths and weaknesses will be shown, and the article will also focus on the opportunities available for Polish higher education institutions that may profit from well-led projects.
  • Poszewiecki, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Various economic theories indicate that many factors determine the competitive position of national economies. In addition to classical factors such as natural resources, technology, and capital (including human capital), other elements include openness and readiness to generate and implement innovation. An important role is played by institutional and legal systems, which provide economic liberty, free competition, and protection against monopolies, corruption, and crime. According to some research, an important role is also played by issues related to intellectual property (and more precisely, industrial property). The purpose of this article is to verify the importance of intellectual property on economic development. For this purpose, literary studies and patent research were primarily used, including an analysis of the relative specialization index (RSI). The analysis results indicated that the effect of IPP on GNP was not explicit and, depending on the starting position of an economy, and an increase in IPP outlays may have various effects. Another important finding is the extraordinarily dynamic growth of the Chinese economy, as measured by patent indices.

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