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59 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, no. 59 / 2019


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  • Jasionowski, Robert (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, At the beginning of this issue 59(131), I would like to pass on an important message to all of our readers. On 31 July 2019, the Ministry of Science and Higher Education published a communiqué concerning the list of scientific journals and peer-reviewed materials from international conferences with a number of points assigned. The Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin were submitted for evaluation by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in three disciplines: 1) civil engineering and transport, 2) mechanical engineering, 3) environmental engineering, mining and energy, and received 20 points based on the opinion of the advisory panels. As Editor-in-Chief of the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, I have made it my goal to develop the journal by attracting new authors and publishing high-quality scientific papers. To achieve this, I have decided to expand the subject matter of this journal. From the next issue 60(132) onwards, scientific papers will be published in the following thematic groups: – mechanical engineering; – civil engineering and transport; – environmental engineering, mining and energy; – automation, electronic and electrical engineering; – information and communication technology; – management and quality studies; – miscellaneous. Expanding the subject matter of the scientific papers will make the quarterly Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin an interdisciplinary publication. In the future, this should increase the standing of our quarterly publication on the national and international arenas and allow us to obtain a higher score in the next list of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, which is to be published in two years. In this issue of MUS Scientific Journals, we present the results of nineteen studies published in four disciplines: Marine Technology and Innovation, Navigation and Maritime Transport, Transport Engineering, and Miscellaneous. Marine Engineering & Innovation contains three articles. The author of the first paper presents the effectiveness of WHR hydrogen technology and a mathematical model of a relevant system intended to increase the efficiency of a ship power plant. The next paper presents issues related to recycling watercraft and the benefits of such undertakings for the natural environment and economy. The third paper presents the results of hardness tests of laminated composites reinforced with crushed polyester-glass recyclate. 6 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin 59 (131) In the second section, Navigation and Maritime Transport, there are two articles. The first one covers issues related to the mathematical optimization of the shift schedules of a ship’s crew. In the second paper, the authors present very interesting findings of research on modelling an unmanned vessel equipped with ecological electric drive. The third section, Transport Engineering, contains ten articles. The authors of these papers address issues related to the organization and management of transport engineering in sea ports and the significance of inland waterways in transport systems and the transport’s impact on the maritime economy. In this section, the reader will also find papers on inland tourism, integrated transport, and the environmental impacts of the latter. The fourth section, Miscellaneous, contains four articles. The first paper presents an analysis of how the GDP dynamics in the EU from 2009-2018 were influenced by intellectual property development expenditures. Another paper studies the use of a participatory budget as a tool to support sustainable urban development. The third article presents the findings of studies on the production of the lipase enzyme from Pseudomonas Aeruginosa used in biotechnological processes. In the last paper, the author presents legal issues concerning plastics polluting marine environments. All readers are invited to visit our website http://scientific-journals.eu, where, in the near future, they will find information about expanding the subject matter of papers published in the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin. All information on the article publication process and full texts of articles from this issue 59(131) and previous issues will be published at this site, as well. Robert Jasionowski, PhD Editor-In-Chief Szczecin, 30.09.2019
  • Cherednichenko, Oleksandr; Tkach, Mykhaylo; Timoshevskiy, Boris; Havrysh, Valerii; Dotsenko, Serhii (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Due to environmental, energy, and operating cost constraints, the number of liquefied natural gas (LNG)–powered ships is increasing. To avoid decreasing the thermal efficiency of two-stroke, low-speed diesel engines, high-pressure gas injection is used. The specific energy consumption of a gas fuel compressor is around 0.35 kWh/kg, which has a negative impact on the efficiency of ship power plants. To reduce the primary energy consumption of a gas fuel supply system, waste heat recovery (WHR) technologies may be used. This study investigated whether WHR metal hydride technology was suitable for improving the efficiency of low-grade heat waste in marine diesel engines. The key factors of this technology were revealed, and the design scheme was described. Working fluids were also analyzed, and a mathematical model of a WHR metal hydride plant was developed, and the results were represented. The calculations showed that the above technology could increase the operating power of a propulsion plant by 5.7–6.2%. The results demonstrate the possibility of applying WHR metal hydride equipment for gas fuel compressor drives in LNG-powered ships. The novelty of this study lies in the investigation of metal hydride technology for application in the waste heat recovery systems of LNG-powered ships.
  • Nyka, Maciej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Ships are valuable sources of steel and other natural resources which can potentially be recycled and reused for economic and environmental benefits, and between 700 and 1000 ships are scrapped annually. On the other hand, up to 5% of the mass of a ship is dangerous wastes. Developed states and the European Union have introduced restrictive regulatory measures to regulate the conditions and locations of ship scrapping facilities. Despite the environmental benefits, these regulations may lose their battle for efficiency due to Asian countries which are engaged in a regulatory race to the bottom to attract ship owners to scrap their ships in their territories. The findings of this research indicate that despite being included in international and EU laws on ship scrapping, the specific instruments to prevent the movement of ship scrapping into the jurisdictions with low environmental standards are ineffective. A new global regulatory instrument is required which can find a balance between strict environmental protections and the economic interests of both the ship owner, companies engaged in ship scrapping, and countries which take economic advantage of those processes.
  • Panasiuk, Katarzyna; Kyzioł, Lesław; Abramczyk, Norbert; Hajdukiewicz, Grzegorz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The attractive characteristics of polyester-glass composites have led to their use in many industries, but using them as structural elements requires knowing their mechanical properties. This paper presents processing methods of polyester and glass scrap and their use in the production of new composites. This scrap, called the recyclate, was pre-crushed, ground, and then passed through sieves to obtain the desired fractions. Composite materials with added recyclate were made by hand lamination. Composites were made and then used to conduct appropriate tests to determine the degree of cure of the resin, and to determine the effect of the polyester- glass recyclate content on the hardness of composites. For this purpose, rectangular panels with a thickness of g = 8 mm were produced by manual lamination. Each plate contained 0% glass mat, 10% resin, and 20% recyclate with granulation ≤ 1.2 mm and ≤ 3 mm. Then, test samples were formed from each plate. Hardness measurements were performed using the ball-pressing method. In addition, structural studies were carried out to determine the correlation between the structural and mechanical properties of the discussed materials. The obtained test results showed that the recyclate content and its granulation clearly affected the mechanical properties of the tested composite materials.
  • Bošnjak, Rino; Bukljaš, Mihaela; Medić, Dario; Vukša, Srđan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Seaborne shipping must often cope with issues related to planning, ship scheduling, and arranging crews and optimal shipping routes between ports. Human resources departments typically plan ship crew shifts with regards to the seafarers’ right to vacation days. It is difficult to harmonize all the requirements and to satisfy both the seafarers and the company. Ideally, arrangements are made for the crewmember to sign off upon completion of a contract, with the vessel being at a port convenient to change the crew at a minimum cost. The latter may vary greatly, depending on the size of the crew to be replaced, the distance of the port from the crew destination, and the available taking-over crew at a specific place and time, etc. In these situations, linear programming (LP) is frequently used as a mathematical method to determine the optimal results. This study suggests the use of a linear-binary programming model in LINGO software to arrange the ship’s crew change schedule.
  • Szelangiewicz, Tadeusz; Żelazny, Katarzyna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    As part of this research, an experimental model of an unmanned ship equipped with an ecological electric drive was built. Ultimately, the ship model was equipped with an on-board computer with appropriate software for autonomous control. A computer simulator was used to test the control software. This article presents the concept of such a simulator, a general mathematical model of the movement dynamics of an unmanned vehicle, a description of the propulsion system, and the tasks planned for implementation in a computer simulator.
  • Bernacki, Dariusz; Lis, Christian (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This study aims to identify and quantify the economic benefits of eliminating collisions between two transport systems: rail and inland waterway transport. The collision between transport systems is caused here by the obsolete structure of a railway drawbridge, which constitutes an element of the railway line used by freight and passenger transport and is located on the main inland waterway used by inland waterways freight transport. Railway transport results in limitations of inland waterway transport and, vice versa, inland waterways transport blocks railway transport during lifting of the bridge span. In the case of railway transport, the low capacity of the single-track railway bridge constitutes an additional limitation of the development of transportation. There are plans to eliminate the collision in the regional transport system by constructing a new railway bridge in place of the old drawbridge. The effects of the transportation infrastructure improvement were measured directly for both rail and inland water freight systems as well as the result of the interaction between passenger rail and car and bus transport. In order to compare the different types of impact, the effects of different actions were valued in monetary terms. The planned intervention, as investigated here, will lead to reductions in the cost of time of inland waterways freight transport and costs of time of rail passenger and freight transport and a decrease in the external costs of transport. This will make possible transportation services that are both cheaper and more reliable.
  • Bernacki, Dariusz; Lis, Christian (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The aim of this paper is to identify and quantify the direct economic effects resulting from navigational restoration of the Dąbie Lake inland fairway, a part of the West Pomeranian region (PL) transport system that runs across the Dąbie Lake. This narrow and shallow inland fairway constitutes the bottleneck for inland waterway freight transport, which must therefore use the sea fairway and thereby incur extended time, increased cost, and reduced efficiency of inland waterway transport. The paper’s second section presents the transport and microeconomic effects that restoring the fairway’s navigability across Lake Dąbie would have on the inland navigation system, thereby increasing the capacity, effectiveness, and safety of inland waterways freight traffic. Restoration of the inland fairway would significantly reduce generalized and external costs of inland waterways transport.
  • Kijewska, Monika; Kasyk, Lech; Pleskacz, Krzysztof (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper analyzes the influence of air mass movement on moving (the leeway) surface water in the Świnoujście– Szczecin fairway region on the Szczecin Lagoon. The Szczecin Lagoon includes waters of the Odra River estuary (Poland’s second largest river) and the southern Baltic Sea. To calculate the leeway parameters, a relevant surface drifter was outlined and constructed. The data on the leeway of the drifter was obtained from in-situ experiments conducted on the Szczecin Lagoon in the summer of 2018. In turn, the air mass movement data was recorded at meteorological stations in Trzebież and Świnoujście. A statistical analysis of the leeway parameters of the drifter was also presented. Distributions of the leeway and wind speeds in the Świnoujście– Szczecin fairway regions were established. Moreover, linear regressions between the leeway and wind parameters were performed by decomposing the leeway into its downwind and crosswind components for each 10-minute sample. It is worth highlighting that relationships between these components of the leeway and wind parameters were studied for weak, medium, and stronger winds. This research may be useful for increasing navigation safety in the Świnoujście–Szczecin fairway regions on the Szczecin Lagoon.
  • Klimek, Hanna; Michalska-Szajer, Anna; Dąbrowski, Janusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Nowadays, seaports are not only important links between land and sea transport chains, but also serve as logistics centres. Due to their nature, they have an impact on environments both near and far, which requires the implementation of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) concept. In practice, this primarily means taking into account stakeholder expectations in planning and implementing marketing strategies. CSR is becoming the subject of interest not only for major seaports but also smaller ports with regional significance. The Port of Gdansk is the largest in Poland and one of the largest in the Baltic Sea Region, and it therefore plays a significant role in the region’s development. The aim of this article is to define the CSR areas of the Port of Gdansk Authority S.A., and the socially responsible tasks undertaken by port operators and the whole port service centre under the name of the Port of Gdansk.
  • Mańkowska, Marta (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The European river cruise market is the leading cruise market in the world and is also one of the fastest growing tourism segments in Europe. However, the demand structure of the European river cruise market has seen significant changes over recent years, and the aim of the studies described in this article was to identify the determinant factors and the ensuing changes in supply and demand within this market. The primary trend observed was a shift in demand, as the share of tourists from outside Europe has been growing with the share of Europeans (to date, the main group of customers) shrinking. These changes are attributable to social, economic, political, and technical factors that have resulted, in particular, in changes in river cruise passengers’ preferences, which in turn have led to specific reactions by river cruise operators. The analyses have shown that river cruise passengers, who are seem increasingly interested in being educated about the local culture, traditions, ecology, wildlife, arts, foods, and history, expect that the river cruise offer will be extended to include new destinations. They also expect an extended offer of wellness-related services and more active river cruises, as well as high-quality passenger space on board ship. In response, European river cruise operators have developed a cruise network and a fleet of river cruise vessels based on these emerging river cruise markets and increased the diversity and comprehensiveness of their offered services. The evolution of the European river cruise market will also constitute a challenge for emerging river cruise destinations, which will need to meet the changing expectations of both passengers and operators.
  • Milewski, Dariusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper examines the classical problem of optimization of the size of a delivery to a warehouse. Using a model developed by the author, simulations were conducted using data obtained from companies in Poland. The results revealed that the impact of this optimization on the economic efficiency of an enterprise can be considerable in some cases. It is difficult, however, to develop an appropriate mathematical formula for solving such a problem. The use of a simulation seems to be more appropriate for solving this problem than optimization models.
  • Montwiłł, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Inland ports in Europe, having undergone transformation for several decades, have become multifunctional economic spaces. Currently, these are not only transport nodes in land-water traditional transport chains but today also supply the locations of intermodal terminals, distribution centers, service and production companies, or technology parks. Multifunctional inland ports also form part of the economic systems of cities and regions, contributing to their development. The aim of this article is to present the best practices in managing inland ports in Europe. In the article, using the results of research on inland waterway transport, it is pointed out what practices in managing inland ports have led, in many cases, to their increased importance in both multi-branch transport systems and the economic development of cities and regions. The study used literature on the subject, specific information on selected European inland ports, and development strategies for selected regions in Europe, including inland waterway transport. On the basis of the above, best practices leading to the long-term development of inland ports and maximizing the added value arising in their areas were determined.
  • Oziewicz, Ewa; Bednarz, Joanna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The Maritime Silk Road of the 21st Century (MSR) is one of the two largest and most ambitious projects announced by Xi Jinping in 2013, under the current name, the Belt and Road Initiative. The main aim of this paper is to assess the opportunities and risks of the maritime portion of this project for EU countries. The authors would like to draw the attention of readers to the possible goals behind the MSR, especially now, when numerous doubts connected with the Chinese initiative have risen. The authors analyze the situation and the consequences of the MSR Initiative for European ports and shipping companies, as well as for other infrastructure and sectors connected with seaborne trade as a part of the blue economy. The MSR creates not only opportunities for developing a blue economy in EU countries, but also competitive risks. EU countries should keep in mind the growing importance of the blue economy for China (including marine industries, the exploitation of ocean resources, and services such as tourism and transport), especially since it already currently represents around 10% of Chinese GDP. It is also worth highlighting that the sea lanes of communication from China to Europe through the Malacca-Suez route are among the busiest in the world. Twenty-five percent of world trade passes through the Malacca Strait alone. This should convince EU countries to pay more attention to China’s activity at sea.
  • Szatten, Dawid; Habel, Michał; Babiński, Zygmunt; Schoeneich, Marta (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The Lower Vistula River is a Polish part of inland waterways E40 that has a comparatively low waterway class (Ib – III; excluding Wloclawek Reservoir part – Va), and projects and works should be undertaken to improve the waterway class conditions. This also depends upon the ratification of the AGN agreement by Poland, which obliges the country to adapt the main waterways to at least the fourth class of navigability. A catalog of investment activities must contain environmental objectives due to the inclusion of Lower Vistula River in the Natura 2000 protected areas network. This research includes an analysis of the impact on the inland waterway transport of the investments included in the Vistula River Basin Management Plans (RBMP). These documents make it possible to rationally manage water resources (also in the waterway transport) and indicate actions aimed at maintaining them for future generations. Therefore, in line with the Water Framework Directive recommendations, all planned investments should have a minimal environmental impact. In the coming years, large-scale infrastructure investments are planned, which will allow the waterway transport conditions to be improved and the environmental goals of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) to be achieved.
  • Urbanyi-Popiołek, Ilona (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    River cruising is well developed in Europe, particularly in the western, central, and some southern regions, and river tourism has expanded visibly during the current decade. A number of highly attractive tourist destinations are located upon rivers, the prime rivers used for cruises being the Danube, Rhine, Maine, Elbe, Loire, and Seine. The topic of this paper is an analysis of European river cruising and the determinants affecting this tourist product. In particular, the paper analyses the current state of river cruising in Poland, as well as the threats and opportunities that act as drivers for such cruising activity. This paper aims to identify and rank the main problems facing river cruising in Poland compared with prime destinations in Europe. River cruising has great potential, but it requires the removal of barriers and the addition of primary infrastructure.
  • Dobrowolski, Krzysztof; Pawłowski, Grzegorz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In the article, an analysis of the impact of outlays for R&D and intellectual property products on the GDP dynamics in European Union countries from 2009–2018 was made based on a theoretical foundation. Two hypotheses were formulated: (1) The higher the share of outlays for R&D in the GDP, the higher the GDP dynamics; (2) The higher the share of investments in intellectual property products in GDP, the higher the GDP dynamics. The hypotheses were not confirmed by statistical data analysis.
  • Drobiazgiewicz, Joanna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents the participatory budget as a tool to support the sustainable development of a city, and in particular using it as the budgeting model of the city of Szczecin and the effects of using it. Based on a critical literature review, the first part of the article shows the connections between good governance and sustainable development. The meanings of the basic concepts in this respect are presented, as well as a simplified model of the construction of the sustainable development concept. Next, public participation tools were described, and participatory budgeting was defined as one of the tools applied in good governance, constituting the basis of sustainable city development. The latter part of the article describes the models of participatory budgeting based on a literature research and an analysis of selected cases. The second part of the article is of an empirical nature. The results of the literature research are juxtaposed with the management practices of the city of Szczecin, where participatory budgeting has used since 2014. In this part of the article, the qualitative single-case study method was applied to analyse and synthesise the strategic city development directions and participatory budget between 2014 and 2019. Their compliance with the concept of sustainable development was also verified. Finally, conclusions drawn from the performed research are presented.
  • Femi-Ola, Titilayo Olufunke; Orjiakor, Paul Ikechukwu; Enerijiofi, Kingsley Erhons; Oke, Iyanuoluwa Omolade; Fatoyinbo, Adebayo Adeola (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Soil contaminated with crude oil has negatively affected some of the communities in Ekiti State region in Nigeria. There is an increased interest in microbial lipases because of their enormous potential in industrial and biotechnological applications. This study investigated the characteristics of partially-purified lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil-contaminated soil in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State. The lipase was purified by gel-filtration, having a molecular weight of 39.11 kDa, with Km and Vmax values of 12.50 and 28.86, respectively. The enzyme had an optimal pH of 8.0 and exhibited its maximal activity at 50°C, whereas the relatively stable temperature and pH were 40°C and 5.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was enhanced by olive oil, which served as the carbon source. Sodium chloride enhanced lipase activity, while calcium chloride acted as mild inhibitor, and iron chloride acted a strong inhibitor. The lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa possessed properties of an industrial enzyme and will be useful for biodegradation and bioremediation studies
  • Nyka, Maciej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Plastic littering has recently become one of the most highly recognized dangers to the marine environment. The problem of marine plastic pollution is not new and was identified more than half a century ago. Recently, however, with increased media coverage and focusing events such as the discovery of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, the problem can no longer be ignored. Several legal instruments address this problem. IMO norms aiming to reduce plastic debris were adopted 30 years ago. The MARPOL Convention includes annexes designed to help fight plastic debris. Other maritime legal instruments can also be leveraged to challenge this problem. As with other marine environment problems, the primary source of the problem, and thus the key to addressing it, is located on land. EU directives can serve as an interesting model for reducing marine pollution. The European Commission proposed new EU-wide rules in May, 2018 to target the 10 single-use plastic products most often found in Europe’s coastal habitats, as well as lost and abandoned fishing gear. Together these constitute 70% of all marine litter items. The adoption and implementation of this instrument may represent a game changing approach in the battle against marine pollution.

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