English Polski
Akademia Morska w Szczecinie

DSpace Home

DSpace/Manakin Repository

Show simple item record

Author Abramowicz-Gerigk, Teresa
Affiliation Gdynia Maritime University, Department of Ship Operation 81-87 Morska St., 81-225 Gdynia, Poland
Author Hejmlich, Andrzej
Affiliation Gdynia Maritime University, Department of Ship Operation 81-87 Morska St., 81-225 Gdynia, Poland
E-mail a.hejmlich@wn.umg.edu.pl
Author Wilczyński, Przemysław
Affiliation Gdynia Maritime University, Department of Ship Operation 81-87 Morska St., 81-225 Gdynia, Poland
E-mail p.wilczynski@wn.umg.edu.pl
ISSN printed 1733-8670
URI https://repository.am.szczecin.pl/handle/123456789/2502
Abstract This paper presents human and operational factors related to risk assessment during the operations of crude oil, petroleum products, and liquefied gas transfer between ships, called Ship to Ship (STS) operations. The lessons learned from accidents during STS when both ships are underway show that the most frequent accidents occur due to ship handling errors. Several influencing factors have already been identified, however there is still a need to investigate the human factor. Both human and operational factors are interrelated as the operational factors influence the human stress level. This paper identifies the stressors related to the external pressures imposed on the ship’s staff, which can be limited to improve safety. The preliminary study of the influence of particular elements of human factors, e.g., personality traits and stress levels, on the probability of ship handling error is presented.
Pages 73-77
Publisher Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie
Keywords risk assessment
Keywords human factor
Keywords ship to ship operation
Keywords operational factors
Keywords ship handling errors
Keywords stress levels
Title Human and operational factors in the risk assessment of ship-to-ship operations
Type Review article
  1. Abramowicz-Gerigk, T. & Hejmlich, A. (2015) Human Factor Modelling in the Risk Assessment of Port Manoeuvers. Transnav 9 (3), pp. 427–433.
  2. Abramowicz-Gerigk, T., Burciu Z. & Hejmlich, A. (2015) Koncepcja metody oceny wpływu czynnika ludzkiego na ryzyko wypadku w transporcie morskim. Logistyka 4, pp. 17–23.
  3. Carotenuto, A., Molino, I., Fasanaro, A.M. & Amenta, F. (2012) Psychological stress in seafarers: a review. International Maritime Health 63 (4), pp. 188–194.
  4. Gerigk, M. (2015) Modeling of event trees for the rapid scenario development. In: Nowakowski et al. (Eds), Safety and Reliability: Methodology and Applications. Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp. 275–280.
  5. Glykas, A. (2017) STS post assessment knowledge and best practices. [Online] Available from: https://safety4sea.com/ sts-post-assessment-knowledge-best-practices/ [Accessed: December 10, 2018].
  6. Hejmlich, A. (2016) Wpływ stresu nawigatora na bezpieczeństwo manewrów na akwenach ograniczonych. Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Gdyni 97, pp. 25–36.
  7. Hejmlich, A. & Abramowich-Gerigk, T. (2017) Human factor influence on ship handling errors in restricted waters – stress susceptibility study. Developments in Maritime Transportation and Harvesting of Sea Resources, Vol. 1, Proceeding of the 17th International Congres of the International Maritime Association of the Mediterranean (IMAM 2017) October 9–11, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 275–280.
  8. Makarowski, R. (2012) Kwestionariusz Ryzyka Stymulacyjnego i Instrumentalnego nie tylko dla sportowców. Psychological Journal 18, 2.
  9. Makarowski, R. (2016) Kwestionariusz dla Kapitanów Żeglugi Wielkiej i studentów AM w Gdyni.
  10. Officer of the watch (2016) How to prevent collision during STS operations. [Online] Available from: https:// officerofthewatch.com/2016/09/14/how-to-prevent-collision- during-sts-operations/ [Accessed: December 10, 2018].
  11. Guide (2013) Ship to Ship Transfer Guide for Petroleum, Chemical and Liquefied Gases. Whitersby Seamanship International Ltd.
  12. Ventikosa, N.P. & Stavroub, D.I. (2013) Ship to Ship (STS) Transfer οf Cargo: Latest Developments and Operational Risk Assessment. SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business 63, 3–4, pp. 172–180.
  13. Wilczyński, P. (2014) STS operation plan for mt ICARUS III, approved by Polish Register of Shipping, Gdańsk.
ISSN on-line 2392-0378
Language English
Funding No data
Figures 5
Tables 2
DOI 10.17402/316
Published 2018-12-18
Accepted 2018-12-10
Recieved 2018-02-21

Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

Search repository

Advanced Search


My Account

RSS Feeds