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52 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, no. 52 / 2017


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  • Wołejsza, Piotr; Eric, Kulbiej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article aims to depict the fundamentals of passage planning and route management for an autonomous vessels (AV). It presents a derivation of such a voyage passage plan, its step-by-step analysis, and a comparison to its conventional equivalent. This passage plan consists of four major parts: dock and harbour, en route, approach, and mooring stages. The whole activity of passage planning itself may be divided into the following stages: appraisal, planning, execution, and monitoring. The paper concludes with an overview of potential future applications and use of mentioned content.
  • Chybowski, Leszek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, It is my great pleasure to introduce the latest 52(124) issue of the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin. The current issue contains results of the latest research in marine engineering, sea navigation and transport engineering. The introductory article entitled “Structural analysis for ships in arctic conditions” was prepared by Prof. Ehlers Sören – head of the Institute for Ship Structural Design and Analysis at Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH) and adjunct professor at NTNU: Norwegian University of Science and Technology. He is an international expert in the field of sustainable Arctic Sea transport. This article summarises regulatory aspects of ship design for ice-covered waters, focusing on structural compliance and design ice-load determination. The publication was funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland from funds for science popularising activities: grant No. 790/P-DUN/2016. I hope that this articles is informative to all readers interested in effective and safe navigation in the Arctic regions. In the Marine Technology and Innovation section, we have included articles on the use of composite materials, computer simulations of deformations and tensions in the pipelines of hydraulic lifting systems and constraints in allocation of thrusters in DP simulator. The Navigation section includes articles related to collision avoidance at sea and the use of logical devices to process the nautical data. In addition, this section addresses issues of planning autonomous passage of vessels, two-dimensional coordinate estimation and the analysis of the LNG tanker Al Nuaman’s speeds during its first voyage to the LNG terminal in Świnoujście (route sections Arkona–Świnoujście–Arkona). The section devoted to Transport and Engineering includes articles on the use of graph theory in modeling transport networks and the definition of inland vessel position using a single stationary non-metric camera. Other topics included are the ability to test shipboard AIS instability and the inaccuracy on simulation devices, the radiooperator decision support system model and the helmet-mounted system of assisting a helicopter pilot during SAR operations. In addition, the Miscellaneous section includes reviews on the achievements of component importance analysis for complex technical systems, GPS/GNSS Spoofing and a Real-Time Single-Antenna-Based Spoofing Detection System, a method for determining landslides risks using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) created by Unmanned Aerial Systems with hydrogeological data connection, and also an extended discussion on the susceptibility of the roll equation to the bifurcation phenomenon. I would like to take this opportunity to inform our readers that the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin quarterly has been indexed in the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection Emerging Sources Citation Index Backfile (ESCI Backfile), which is an ESCI database archive in which our Scientific Journals were included last year (Chybowski, 2017). The ESCI Backfile archives list articles published in the period of 2005-2014. Another grand success of our quarterly is the third place in the “Top 25 Polish ESCI Journals by number of documents” rating with 727 indexed documents. It was announced in the proceedings of the November training conducted by the company Clarivate Analytics – the owner of the Web of ScienceTM platform (Kapczyński, 2017). In addition to the high and constantly upgraded quality of the journal, this success is due primarily to the accurate data structure as well as improved mechanisms used in the repository of scientific articles for online magazines developed in 2015 by the Maritime University in Szczecin. To access the online version of the current and archival issues of the journal (starting with the first issue published in 1973) please 6 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin 52 (124) visit our website at http://scientific-journals.eu/. The digitisation and sharing archival versions of all publications was funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland from the previously listed funds for science popularising activities. Moreover, I would like to inform you that, in accordance with official information obtained from the Scientific Journals Assessment Unit of the Index Copernicus International dated 17 November 2017, the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University in Szczecin were assessed in terms of publication quality and received the result of 90.35 expressed by means of the ICV 2016 indicator (Index Copernicus International, 2017). For comparison, in the previous three years the ratings were respectively: in 2014 the ICV 2013 indicator = 6.16 (64.38 under the new methodology), in 2015 the ICV 2014 indicator = 7.76 (79.38 under the new methodology), in 2016 the ICV 2015 indicator = 87.49. So in the above-mentioned period the index has increased by 42.5%. It should be emphasised at this point that the continuous improvement of the publication quality of our journal is a result of the hard work of the Editorial Board, members of the Scientific Committee and reviewers as well as the policies of the current and previous authorities of the University that have supported the development of the quarterly. I am deeply grateful to all the people involved. I strongly encourage the authors to submit their work and readers to provide us with your comments. References 1. Chybowski L. (2017) Editorial preface. Scientific Journals Of The Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie 51 (123), pp. 5–6, doi: 10.17402/224. 2. Index Copernicus International (2017) ICI Journals Master List / Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie. Available from: https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/details?id=4059 [Accessed: December 11, 2017] 3. Kapczyński M. (2017) Emerging Sources Citation Index Backfile. Expanding the depth of your research. Claritive Analytics, 29 Nov 2017, p. 29. dr hab. inż. Leszek Chybowski, Associate Professor Editor-in-Chief
  • Ehlers, Sören (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Ships are operating in regions with seasonal ice coverage outside the Baltic Sea. Due to the lack of experience operating in regions such as the Arctic Sea, existing design guidelines may not lead to reliable and safe ships. This article summarises regulatory aspects of ship design for ice-covered waters, focusing on structural compliance and design ice load determination. The latter will be obtained using a probabilistic approach and compared to the current rule-based load. Based on the discrepancy and the existence of ice induced damage, different measures aimed at mitigating damage are presented. Furthermore, the influence of sub-zero temperature (SZT) in a collision scenario on the material response is presented
  • Grabian, Janusz; Ślączka, Wojciech; Pawłowska, Patrycja; Kostrzewa, Waldemar (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This work indicates that new and innovative materials used in the construction of floating and stationary marine structures can contribute to increased operational safety in addition to reduced service costs and frequency and other reduced operating costs, including the costs of staff and running maintenance. Such materials include metal-ceramic composites whose properties, such as high resistance to abrasive wear, favourable coefficient of friction, good thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion, allow them to be used in tribological pairs in mechanisms, control elements and actuators of various devices operating in marine power plants, thereby increasing their operational reliability. Properties of metal-ceramic composite foams, i.e. vibration and noise damping, good thermal insulation performance, dissipation of electromagnetic waves and absorption of explosive energy, make them ideal for use in shipbuilding and construction of drilling towers, at the same time increasing the levels of comfort during operation. Composite metal-ceramic foams can significantly reduce the effects of fires as they are durable, water-resistant and creep resistant thermal insulators which can limit the destruction (deformation) of steel structures. This paper presents proposals for the application of these materials to selected technical solutions in offshore structures.
  • Panasiuk, Katarzyna; Hajdukiewicz, Grzegorz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In this article the problem of plastic recycling, and in particular waste polyester-glass, has been described. In brief, the technology for the production of new composite materials by hand, made by the contact method, using the matrix filling in the form of polyester-glass waste coming from worn-out laminates used in the construction of ship hulls. The waste used was a powdered mixture of resin particles, glass fibers, and composite particle agglomerates. A method for producing composite panels with a recyclate content of between 10% and 30% was carried out. The samples were then manufactured according to the requirements of the standard, i.e. PN-EN ISO 527-4_2000P. Samples obtained from the test plates were subjected to a static stretch test, to verify the impact of the integrated wastes on the mechanical properties of the composite. Photographs of the structure of the obtained material have also been presented. These photos showed significant differences in the composition of the resulting composites determined by the amount of waste material used. Analysis of the results indicated that increasing the amount of recyclate reduces the value of the material’s strength limit and also reduces the plasticity of the material. This article has provided an introduction to more comprehensive research on the recycling of plastics.
  • Szelangiewicz, Tadeusz; Żelazny, Katarzyna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    One of the methods of collecting polymetallic nodules from the sea floor is a hydraulic system using a single or double vertical pipeline. While mining, collecting pipelines suspended from a mining support vessel (MSV) move together. As a result of both the MSV’s motion with a suspended pipe system and water action (including deep-water currents) a vertical deflection and deformation occur along the pipeline. Simultaneously, stretching and bending tensions emerge along the pipeline. The article presents computer simulation results of vertical deflection and tensions within single and double vertical pipelines with fixed force from the ship’s movement (linear movement at constant speed) and regular force from the waves.
  • Zalewski, Paweł (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Vessels conducting dynamic positioning (DP) operations are usually equipped with thruster configurations that enable the generation of force and torque. Some thrusters in these configurations are deliberately redundant to minimize consequences of thruster failures, enable overactuated control and increase the safety in operation. On such vessels, a thrust allocation system must be used to distribute the control actions determined by the DP controller among the thrusters. The optimal allocation of the thrusters’ settings in DP systems is a problem that can be solved by convex optimization methods depending on the criteria and constraints used. This paper presents a quadratic programming (QP) method, adopted in a DP control model, which is being developed in Maritime University of Szczecin for ship simulation purposes.
  • Baldauf, Michael; Mehdi, Raza; Fischer, Sandro; Gluch, Michael (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Avoidance of collisions is one of the most important tasks for the officer of the watch on a ship’s bridge. Measures and actions required to avoid such accidents are described in the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGs) adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in 1972 and still valid, with several minor amendments, since then. On the basis of a proper look-out at all times, by sight and hearing, and the use of all available means, also including technical equipment installed on-board as well as information provided by a Vessel Traffic Service (VTS), the navigating officer collects traffic and environmental data and combines them with their own ship data to construct a mental traffic image for the assessment of risk of collision with other objects in the vicinity. In the case wherre there is an unacceptable risk she or he has to decide on taking action. In most of the cases decision making is appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and ships maneuver and pass at a safe distance. Only in very rare cases, due to whatever reasons, watch officers fail in taking appropriate actions in good time. It is assumed that, if effective alerting algorithms would be available, a substantial number of collisions at sea, and especially in coastal waters, can be avoided by making the watch officer aware that the ‘last line of defence’ for taking action is close to come. It is assumed that there is potential in applying the principle of the resolution advisory alert of an ACAS (Airborne Collision Avoidance System)/TCAS (Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System) in aviation and adapt it to the needs of maritime traffic. In this paper, the authors introduce a method for triggering collision warnings by focusing specifically on the critical last phase of an encounter and taking into account the maneuvering characteristics of the navigating ship. They comprehensively explore the application using scenario studies discussing the operational aspects of varying implementation states (one ship only, SOLAS ships only).
  • Filipowicz, Włodzimierz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Nautical measurements are randomly and systematically corrupted. There is a rich scope of knowledge regarding the randomness shown by results of observations. The distribution of stochastic distortions remains an estimate and is imprecise with respect to their parameters. Uncertainties can also occur through the subjective assessment of each piece of available data. The ability to model and process all of the aforementioned items through traditional approaches is rather limited. Moreover, the results of observations, the final outcome of a quality evaluation, can be estimated prior to measurements being taken. This a posteriori analysis is impaired and it is outside the scope of traditional, inaccurate data handling methods. To propose new solutions, one should start with an alternative approach towards modelling doubtfulness. The following article focusses on belief assignments that may benefit from the inclusion of uncertainty. It starts with a basic interval uncertainty model. Then, assignments engaging fuzzy locations around nautical indications are discussed. This fragment includes transformation from density functions to probability distributions of random errors. Diagrams of the obtained conversions are included. The presentation concludes with a short description of a computer application that implements the presented ideas.
  • Hajduk, Jerzy (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    When a transport vehicle is put into service on a new route, all safety aspects of its movement should be comprehensively examined. In maritime transport, such situations arise especially when new sea ports are built, intended to handle selected types of vessels with specific characteristics. The construction of the LNG terminal in Świnoujście made it necessary to carry out an extensive analysis of the safety of LNG tanker passage. This was related to the shipping route from the Danish Straits to the berth. This article compares the routes planned at the design stage with the actual track of the tanker Al Nuaman during its first voyage. The tanker speeds on key route sections have been examined, i.e. in the approach channel from Cape Arkona to Świnoujście.
  • Jaskólski, Krzysztof (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Due to safety reasons, the movement of a ship in coastal areas should be monitored, tracked, recorded, and stored. The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a suitable tool to use in performing these functions. The probability limit for the AIS dynamic data availability can be limited by the lack of a Global Position System (GPS) signal, heading (HDG), and rate of turn (ROT) data in the position report. The unavailability of a data link is an additional limitation. To fill this gap, it is possible to attach the discrete Kalman filter (KF) for the position and course estimation. Coordinate estimation in the absence of a transmission link can improve the quality of the AIS service at Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) stations. This paper has presented the Kalman filtering algorithm to improve the possibilities for ship motion tracking and monitoring in the TSS (Traffic Separation Scheme) and fairways area. More than 570 iterations were calculated and the results have been presented in figures to familiarize the reader with the operating principle of the Kalman filter algorithm.
  • Guze, Sambor (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    One of the possibilities when modelling a transport network is to use a graph with vertices and edges. They represent the nodes and arcs of such a network respectively. There are dozens of parameters or characteristics that we can describe in graphs, including the different types of domination number and the problems related to it. The main aim of this paper has been to show the possibilities of the application of the selected domination- oriented concepts to modelling and improving the transportation and/or logistics networks. Firstly, the basic description of domination in graph theory has been introduced. The edge-subdivision and bondage number notations and their implementations to the transportation network description and modelling were then proposed. Furthermore, the possible usage of distinguishing concepts in an exemplary academic transportation network has been shown. Finally, the conclusions and future directions of the work have been presented.
  • Kujawski, Artur; Stępień, Grzegorz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents the results of research on determining inland vessel position using a single stationary, non-metric camera, which was positioned on the Długi Bridge in Szczecin. Studies included a comparison of graphical methods (i.e. geometric transformation and the bunch of rays method) and analytical methods (i.e. 2D to 2D transformation and 3D to 2D transformation). The research material was a collection of video images of an inland vessel navigating the West Odra River between the Długi and Kolejowy bridges in Szczecin. The results of the research were compared to reference points determined using tachymetric surveys and material acquired by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and the onboard GNSS satellite receiver with Real Time Kinematic (RTK) correction.
  • Lewitowicz, Jerzy; Szelmanowski, Andrzej; Pazur, Andrzej; Michalak, Sławomir; Janik, Paweł (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents selected results of analytical and construction works executed at the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) in the context of possibilities of supporting the actions of a helicopter crew, i.e., pilot-crew commander, pilot-operator of on-board systems, and on-board technician participating in aviation/maritime search and rescue missions. Such support is based on using the helmet-mounted display systems SWPL1 “Cyklop” and NSC1 “Orion” for information from the observation-targeting heads and verbal communication with the survivor. Selected imaging and verbal communication devices installed on aircraft operated by the Polish Armed Forces, which are used in aviation/maritime search and rescue actions, are discussed. Particular attention is drawn to the problems associated with the integrated avionics systems of helmet-mounted imaging of piloting-navigation parameters and the helmet-mounted imaging of information from the observation-targeting heads, i.e., the on-board radio direction finder system and emergency radio, which are part of the integrated communication system. Sample structural solutions for such systems and the possibilities of their application in search and rescue missions are presented
  • Mąka, Marcin; Majzner, Piotr (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article proposes a model of the system supporting the decision-making process relating to the radio operator on board a ship after a distress alert is received by a Digital Selective Calling (DSC) controller working on VHF channel 70. The model is aimed at the implementation into the system of radiocommunication event management. The system takes into account the existing Radio Regulations. The model makes use of Petri nets, which are elements of graph theory. The time domain is comprised in the developed graph, and the states (places) and transitions capable of autonomous functioning are separated, as are those places and transitions requiring direct operator action based on empirical knowledge.
  • Wawruch, Ryszard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    According to the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) recommendation, when the target data from the automatic identification system (AIS) and radar tracking are both available and the association criteria are fulfilled such that the AIS and radar information are considered for one physical target, then as a default condition of radar equipment, the AIS target symbol and the alphanumerical AIS target data, including information on the closest point of approach (CPA) and time needed to reach the CPA (TCPA) should be automatically selected and displayed as this is more accurate than radar tracking data as the current values of true and relative vectors of a manoeuvring object can be presented without time delay which is characteristic for radar tracking. Research conducted at sea on two ships using real navigational equipment has shown that sometimes onboard AIS presents CPA of other vessels equipped with this device as unstable and inaccurate as the automatic radar plotting aid (ARPA). The source of these instabilities and inaccuracies is to be discovered and thus implemented into radar-navigational simulators used for radar training at operational and management levels. This article briefly describes the encountered inaccuracy and instability of the values of the CPA of the encountered vessel presented by AIS, on current shipboard systems, and the possibilities of their demonstration on simulation devices.
  • Chybowski, Leszek; Gawdzińska, Katarzyna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Selected issues of component importance analysis for complex technical systems have been presented in this paper. A generic example of a complex technical system and selected statistics of operating losses have been described. A description and diagrams of both qualitative and quantitative importance analysis have also been included. The most significant problems facing complex technical system modelling have been pointed out. A multi-criteria system component importance analysis and the basic criteria for a system component quality evaluation have also been introduced. Some factors influencing the importance of the technical system’s components have also been described. Finally, the necessity of further developing importance analysis methods for machinery operation has been highlighted.
  • Ochin, Evgeny (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The idea of C/A codes GPS/GNSS Spoofing (Substitution), or the ability to mislead a satellite navigation receiver into establishing a position or time fix which is incorrect, has been gaining attention as spoofing has become more sophisticated. Various techniques have been proposed to detect if a receiver is being spoofed – with varying degrees of success and computational complexity. If the jammer signals are sufficiently plausible then the GNSS receiver may not realize it has been duped. There are various means of detecting spoofing activity and hence providing effective mitigation methods. In this paper, a novel signal processing method applicable to a single antenna handset receiver for spoofing detection has been described. Mathematical models and algorithms have been developed to solve the problems of satellite navigation safety. What has been considered in the paper is a spoofing detection algorithm based on the analysis of a civil satellite signal generated by mobile C/A GPS/GNSS single-antenna receivers. The work has also served to refine the civilian spoofing threat assessment by demonstrating the challenges involved in mounting a spoofing attack.
  • Sanecki, Józef; Klewski, Andrzej; Zygmunt, Marek; Stępień, Grzegorz; Hałaburda, Roman; Borczyk, Kamil (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents the problem of surveying landslide prone areas. Discussed are the possibility of using photogrammetry methods for digital imaging, creating Digital Terrain Models (DTM) and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) of slope surface and combining these with the ground’s angle of internal friction, cohesion and hydrogeological data. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) with inclined high precision cameras show different slope angles than UASs with vertical cameras. Expressly, we can see places within the landslide area where the angle of internal friction and cohesion are low. These places are the most likely to suffer further mass movements causing fissures and ground displacements. In the observed landslide area we separated the steep parts of the slope, with low cohesion values, and the slight parts of the slope, with low values of angle of internal friction. In these different areas, landslides can evolve in different ways and at different speeds. The Factor of Safety (FS) was calculated for different types of area which allowed the probability of new mass movements to be checked for different areas. This method can be useful for C-B and X-Band PSI Interferometry Data. Because of the damage potentially incurred by landslides, there is a need to better understand these natural phenomena, especially their methods and speed of development and how they can be prevented from forming in the future.
  • Wawrzyński, Wojciech (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper deals with the susceptibility of the roll equation to the bifurcation phenomenon depending on the damping coefficient value and form of the roll damping formula. Generally, the bifurcation phenomenon depends mainly on the shape of the righting arm curve (GZ curve), but roll damping also has a significant impact. The commonly used formulas for roll damping are presented, as well as values of the linear equivalent roll damping coefficient, calculated according to the simple Ikeda method. Values of the linear equivalent roll damping coefficient were calculated for a wide spectrum of roll amplitudes and roll frequencies for two ships. The loading conditions for these ships were selected to show different GZ curve characteristics. One ship has a softening spring characteristic and the second has a hardening spring characteristic. For these two ships, a number of calculations of roll spectra are presented where the bifurcation phenomenon occurs. Calculations were made for different damping coefficient values and forms of the roll damping formula.

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