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50 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, no. 50 / 2017


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  • Chybowski, Leszek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, It is my great pleasure to present to the new issue 50 (122) of the Scientific Journals of the Maritime Academy in Szczecin. This publication contains the most recent research results on marine engineering, energy, navigation and transport engineering. The introductory article in this issue has been prepared by Dr Floris Goerlandt, a researcher from Aalto University, Helsinki. It focusses on modelling oil spill scenarios from tanker collision accidents in the Northern Baltic Sea. This publication has been financed from the funds for activities of promoting science: grant No. 790/P-DUN/2016 of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. It is my expectation that this material will be attractive to all readers interested in the issues of security in marine transport and minimising the results of ecological disasters. The Marine Technology and Innovation section contains papers on infrared cameras used in detecting sources of fire on ships, estimating oil consumption based on ship service parameters in real weather conditions, and on the effect of the angle of attack on the generated water wave propagation. The Navigation oriented section includes papers on the concepts of route prediction for a person drifting in water, analyses of vessels traffic flow on a waterway bend as well as radiocommunication and detection of spoofing using differential GNSS. The Transportation Engineering section contains articles addressing inland transport, operation of a sea port and vehicle safety. To access the electronic version of the current issue or archival volumes, please visit our website http://scientific-journals.eu/. You will also be able to access all papers published by the Scientific Journals from 1973. The digitalisation and sharing of archival issues has been financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education from the fund (above) for activities associated with the promotion of science. I strongly encourage and invite authors to submit their work and readers to forward their comments to the journal.
  • Goerlandt, Floris (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Oil spills from maritime activities can lead to very extensive damage to the marine environment and disrupt maritime ecosystem services. Shipping is an important activity in the Northern Baltic Sea, and with the complex and dynamic ice conditions present in this sea area, navigational accidents occur rather frequently. Recent risk analysis results indicate those oil spills are particularly likely in the event of collisions. In Finnish sea areas, the current wintertime response preparedness is designed to a level of 5000 tonnes of oil, whereas a state-of-the-art risk analysis conservatively estimates that spills up to 15000 tonnes are possible. Hence, there is a need to more accurately estimate oil spill scenarios in the Northern Baltic Sea, to assist the relevant authorities in planning the response fleet organization and its operations. An issue that has not received prior consideration in maritime waterway oil spill analysis is the dynamics of the oil outflow, i.e. how the oil outflow extent depends on time. Hence, this paper focuses on time-dependent oil spill scenarios from collision accidents possibly occurring to tankers operating in the Northern Baltic Sea. To estimate these, a Bayesian Network model is developed, integrating information about designs of typical tankers operating in this area, information about possible damage scenarios in collision accidents, and a state-of-the-art time-domain oil outflow model. The resulting model efficiently provides information about the possible amounts of oil spilled in the sea in different periods of time, thus contributing to enhanced oil spill risk assessment and response preparedness planning.
  • Bistrović, Miroslav; Ristov, Pančo; Komorčec, Domagoj (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    One of the key benefits of using thermal imaging is the ability to predict possible fire hazards due to increases in temperature in controlled areas in a particular marine facility or system. This study proposes the possibility of applying new electronic and computer technology as part of a ship’s fire detection system, such as the use of computer vision, using existing marine CCTV systems and installing thermal imaging IR cameras on the same system. It also proposes communication between the CCTV system and the fire detection and central alarm system of a ship. In addition to visual analysis of certain areas on board the ship and the related facilities inside it, with the addition of certain software applications into the existing CCTV system, the system itself becomes a fire alarm system, with the potential to forecast and send early warnings to the ship’s central fire alarm system in real time, thereby contributing to improved safety with regards to various areas, equipment, the ship as a whole, cargo and human lives.
  • Cepowski, Tomasz; Drozd, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper deals with fuel consumption estimations relating to container ships on the basis of ship service and wave parameters. Data, on which to base estimations, was measured and recorded from a container ship during 96 months at sea. Approximating functions were calculated by the use of curve fitting techniques and regression methods, utilizing newly developed software named ndCurveMaster. The approximation function presented in this paper could have practical application for the estimation of container ship fuel consumption, while considering weather routing. In addition the study clearly shows the relationship between the fuel consumption of a container ship and the number of months since its last docking. These results may form the basis for further research in this direction.
  • Javanmardi, Mohammadreza; Binns, Jonathan; Izham, Muhammad Iqbal Che; Rafieshahraki, Jalal (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The presented work is an experimental investigation into the waves generated by a pressure source moving in a straight channel. Wave fields generated by the moving pressure source are described and the effects of angle of attack on the generated wave height, surfable wave quality, drag and vertical forces are presented. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the angle of attack and the generated wave height across the towing tank width and the surfable wave quality. The investigations were conducted at the Australian Maritime College towing tank on a wavedozer at four different attack angles at various speeds. Three wave probes were installed across the channel to record the generated wave heights. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded that smaller angles of attack produced higher quality surfable waves compared to larger angles of attack, while the height of the generated wave has a direct relationship with the angle of attack. By comparing the forces for different models, it was concluded that the pressure source with the lowest angle of attack has the minimum drag but maximum displacement.
  • Kijewska, Monika (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In this paper, the route prediction for a person in water was performed on the basis of a developed graph algorithm. This person drifted in water under the influence of surface currents and wind. The total drift route for the person in water was established as the route in a weighted directed graph. Vertices of this graph correspond to given points within a given basin. Additionally, the graph’s edges show possible directions of the overall human drift. The weight of the given edge describes the difference between the gradient of the edge and the total drift direction calculated on the basis of surface current field data and wind field data. An application has been created on the basis of a given algorithm which might be used to support the search for survivors in coastal areas (e.g. port basins, basins adjacent to the port, bays and sea areas) for which hydrodynamic models reliably reflect local phenomena.
  • Mąka, Marcin; Majzner, Piotr; Lisaj, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents the structure of a model of the allocation of radiocommunication events at coastal radio stations, land-based satellite stations and on vessels in sea area A3. The propagation of radio waves in the HF band has been analyzed to examine the range of various radio stations and their capabilities of establishing communication between each other. We also present methods of modeling and displaying the deployment of individual stations, of presenting radiocommunication events as a function of time using time diagrams, as well as the manner of the chronological presentation of radiocommunication events and related decisions. It has been shown that there is a relationship between the effectiveness of communication and propagation conditions that is strongly dependent on the time-of-day. We present the need to develop a decision support system for the radio operator on the bridge.
  • Ochin, Evgeny (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    One of the main problems in modern navigation of both manned and unmanned transport systems is that of transport safety. Differential GNSS technology has been used to improve the accuracy of transport positioning, in which position is calculated relative to a fixed reference station with a known position XYZ. Unfortunately, GNSS is vulnerable to malicious intrusion. GNSS signals and/or correction signals from the reference station can be spoofed by false signals, and special receivers have been used to provide defenses against such attacks. But how can the roving receiver (i.e. the user) be sure that the information they receive is authentic? Spoofing is the transmission of a matched-GNSS-signal-structure and/or signals to a reference station in order to cause interference and attempt to commandeer the tracking loops of a victim receiver, thereby allowing manipulation of the receiver’s timing or navigation solution. A spoofer can transmit its counterfeit signals from a stand-off distance of several hundred meters, or it can be co-located with its victim. In this article we consider the principles of spoofing detection using Differential GNSS, in which a correction signal from the reference station is used for the detection of spoofing
  • Przywarty, Marcin; Dzwonkowski, Jan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents preliminary results of research to develop a method of analysis of chosen parameters of vessel traffic flows on a bend in a waterway. Assumptions within the model are based on the geometrical dependences and, for a significant part, on expert experience and real life manoeuvring tactics. The work is focused on the analysis of coordinates of a ship, reduced to its centre of gravity, for different input and assumed output parameters. The proposed method allows also for the analysis of other parameters that influence navigational safety such as rate of turn. The results confirm the possibility of assessment of traffic flow parameters with use of the developed method. In the next stages of the work, algorithms which are capable of accounting for human factors and external conditions can be implemented.
  • Dobryakova, Larisa; Lemieszewski, Łukasz; Ochin, Evgeny (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Spoofing, anti-spoofing, jamming and anti-jamming technologies have become an important research topic within the GNSS discipline. While many GNSS receivers leave a large space for signal dynamics, enough power space is left for the GNSS signals to be spoofed and/or jammed. The goal of spoofing is to provide the receiver with a misleading signal, fooling the receiver into using fake signals in the extra space for positioning calculations. The receiver will then generate a false position, thus misleading the navigator. The goal of jamming is to add noise to the satellite signal which leads to fooling the receiver into using “signals plus noise” for positioning calculations. This article discusses the approach to anti-jamming based on the shielding of antennas from the signal jammer.
  • Galor, Wiesław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In many cases, sea ships are required to call at ports situated several hundred kilometers inland, including several different types of ship (freight, passenger, recreational). The main benefit of sea-river navigation is that ships may enter inland and carry cargo to the ports of other countries without their cargo having to be transferred several times. This method significantly reduces the risk of damage to the cargo and also lowers transport costs. An important element in sea-river shipping which is showing an increasing trend is that of passenger shipping (cruisers). This article analyzes the current situation of this type of navigation in Poland. Several examples of shipping routes on inland waters are presented.
  • Slišković, Merica; Hadžić, Ana Perić; Vukić, Luka (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper analyzes the external environmental costs and revenues of cruise traffic in the port of Split in 2015. In order to explore the perspectives of increasing the current mode of cruise traffic in the future, results were compared with those previously known for the port of Venice. The use of the same research methodology was an important condition for this comparison. The cruise tourism business has a negative balance sheet when comparing the costs and revenues in both cities: the external costs are higher than the revenues. Growing cruise traffic leads to further growth of the external costs, deepening the negative cost-benefit ratio. Valorization of damage is a sensitive topic which conflicts with the interests of various parties but is also an important factor in the apparent unsustainability of the current mode of cruise tourism. The authors want to highlight the similar problems of the two cities and encourage the authorities to implement the necessary controls to limit such damage.
  • Wilhelm, Johannes; Ptak, Mariusz; Rusiński, Eugeniusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The performance of passive safety devices to protect vulnerable road users, or otherwise endangered persons, from severe injuries in cases of impacts and accidents has improved notably in recent decades. The devices’ levels of performance appear to have plateaued but the numbers of severe injuries and deaths caused in such incidents could be decreased further if new solutions are found. At first, the possibilities for improving the impact behavior of passive safety devices may appear to be restricted to device geometry; however, it is in fact also possible to rethink the applied materials and to utilize natural principles in their design. In this study, impact related brain injury mechanisms and injury criteria are investigated using dynamic simulations and Finite Element Head Models, results from which are compared with data collected from real-life accidents. As these tools are advancing considerably in terms of accuracy, information density and complexity, they provide, like expert knowledge from the fields of biomechanics, biomedicine and neuroscience, valuable input for further development.
  • Włodarczyk-Sielicka, Marta; Bodus-Olkowska, Izabela (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Mobile navigation for inland shipping is an example of a GIS system dedicated for recreational users using inland waterways. Developing this system is a primary purpose of the research project “Mobile Navigation for Inland Waters” funded by the National Centre for Research and Development under the program LIDER. System assumptions include the development of a dedicated model of mobile cartographic presentation, taking into account the generalization of data. This article is focused on simplification of line and polygon features, included in the spatial data model MODEF (MObinav Data Exchange Format), which is used in the created system. During the simplification of line features, the Douglas-Peucker algorithm was mainly implemented. During the simplification of polygon features, a simplification method was applied, maintaining the basic shape and size of the objects. A simplification tolerance parameter and a parameter determining the minimum area of the object was also used. In addition, objects within a certain distance were merged. A smoothing tool for the shape and size of buildings and the PEAK method (Polynomial Approximation with Exponential Kernel) were used as well. Furthermore, a selection tool was employed and features with minor importance to the user were deleted during navigation mode. Given the requirements of the future user of the system, a separate model simplification for each of the layers of the system was created; these models are combinations of the methods listed above. The overriding factor that has been taken into account during the research of simplification methods, was the limitation of the sharpness of human eyes. The study of generalization methods was carried out in ArcGIS software.

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