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Author Szymański, Maciej
Affiliation Maritime University of Szczecin, Faculty of Navigation, Institute of Marine Navigation 1–2 Wały Chrobrego St., 70-500 Szczecin, Poland
E-mail mszymanski@interia.pl
Author Wiśniewski, Bernard
Affiliation Maritime University of Szczecin, Faculty of Navigation, Institute of Marine Navigation 1–2 Wały Chrobrego St., 70-500 Szczecin, Poland
E-mail b.wisniewski@am.szczecin.pl
ISSN printed 1733-8670
URI https://repository.am.szczecin.pl/handle/123456789/2347
Abstract A ship sailing between the coasts of China, Japan, Korea and the Western coast of North America must cross navigational and geographical barriers of the Kuril Islands Archipelago and Aleutian Chain. Passes between the islands are particularly difficult and hazardous in winter. Most of them are covered by drifting ice for 5 months of the year. A number of allowed passes and offshore routes had been established by the maritime authorities of Alaska on the Bering Sea and in Aleutian Chain. However, use of other passes and routes is limited to exceptional cases only. Similar regulations exist in the Okhotsk Sea and other waters under Russian jurisdiction. The ship must then give grounds for a deviation from recommended or allowed passes and tracks and report other required information. Since January 1, 2015, it is mandatory to use the low sulphur fuel oil (sulphur content no higher than 0.01%) in the main propulsion system and auxiliary machinery when navigating inside the Emission Control Area (ECA) zone. Ships face a constant dilemma whether to remain in the ECA zone for the shortest or longer period of time, if the fuel and cost gain in relation to the entire route justify that. Available decision making support systems, like SPOS and Bon Voyage, do not solve that issue satisfactorily.
Pages 96-104
Publisher Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie
Keywords route programming
Keywords SPOS system
Keywords Bon Voyage system
Keywords navigational constraints
Keywords legislative constraints
Keywords Northern Pacific
Title Navigational and legislative constraints for optimization of ocean routes in the Northern Pacific Ocean
Type Review article
References
  1. Alaska Maritime Prevention & Response Network (2014) Western Alaska Alternative Planning Criteria for Nontank Vessels Cargo and Passanger Vessels. AK-APC-NTV Operating Porcedures for Cargo and Passengers Non Tank Vessels Transiting and Operating in Alaska Waters, August 13.
  2. Applied Weather Technologies (AWT) (2014) Bon Voyage System (BVS) voyage optimization software, v. 7.0. 140 Kifer Court, Sunnyvale CA 94086
  3. UK Hydrographic Office BA Chart 4503. North Pacific Ocean. North Western Part.
  4. UK Hydrographic Office NP136 (2014) Ocean Passages for the World, 6th Edition.
  5. UK Hydrographic Office NP41 (2014) Admiralty Sailing Directions, Japan Pilot Volume I, 11th Edition.
  6. UK Hydrpgraphic Office NP23 (2013) Admiralty Sailing Directions, Bering Sea and Strait Pilot, 8th Edition
ISSN on-line 2392-0378
Language English
Funding No data
Figures 12
Tables 0
DOI 10.17402/182
Published 2016-12-28
Accepted 2016-11-02
Recieved 2016-04-29


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