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47 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, no. 47 / 2016


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  • Chybowski, Leszek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, It is our great pleasure to present the 47 th issue of the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin. This edition features the latest findings and research in the area of transport engineering, mari- time navigation and marine engineering. Articles in the Marine Technology and Innovation section include studies on the influence of marine power plant damage on the environment, fire safety, diagnostics of technical structures, using simulations to analyse the functioning of ship boilers as well as numerical analyses of the hydrodynamic characteristics of ducted propellers. The Navigation and Maritime Transport section includes articles addressing the use of satellite navigation systems, dynamic optimisation of safe ship trajectory, state-of-the-art techniques and tools for processing navigation data as well as navigation in emission control area zones. The section entitled Transportation Engineering includes studies addressing inland transport, benefits of using liquefied natural gas fuel in the urban transport, concepts on the protection of the internal market in road transport in European Union countries. I would also like to take this opportunity to inform you that the Scientific Journals of the Maritime Uni- versity of Szczecin has been listed in the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) in the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection, which was launched in 2015. This demonstrates that our activity in the arena of scientific pub- lishing have been recognised by Thomson Reuters specialists. This is a great honour and an important mark of quality reflecting the efforts we have made to upgrade our quarterly journal. I wish to express my gratitude to the university authorities for their support as well as appreciation for the engagement of my colleagues, members of the scientific board and reviewers. We strongly encourage authors to submit their articles and readers to provide feedback. In order to access the online version of this issue along with archived editions please visit our website http://scientific-journals. eu/.
  • Behrendt, Cezary; Rajewski, Przemysław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    An analysis of the failures occurring in the energetic systems of Polish fishing cutters, covering the years 1999–2012, is presented in this paper.The structural age, size and number of Polish fishing cutters is also indi- cated herein. The eff ect of the failures on the marine environment has been assessed, taking into consideration a presumed fuel spillage depending on fish catch volume and an analysis of the biodegradability of various fuels. The subject of the analysis also includes the damage impact of transponders cooperating with a vessel monitoring system (VMS) on an increase of the risk of collisions between other off shore industry objects and fishing vessels.
  • Kaszycki, Leszek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dynamic development of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) technology and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software has resulted in their widespread usage in integrated systems of automa- tion, becoming one of the main directions of ship automation. This change justifies the need to improve the training of future crews on simulators built with the use of PLC and SCADA technologies. This paper presents a simulator prototype for selective processes ofa main-propulsion boiler’sfuel-gas-line nitrogenpurging system, applied in LNG (liquefied natural gas) ships.Control algorithms and appropriateschematic diagrams of the LNG fuel system of these processes werealso presented. A Versa Max Micro-series PLC and an InTouch 9.0 PL SCADA software were applied in construction of the simulator. As a result of simulations, a visualisation of different states of fuel line in the form of screenshots was included. Finally, the paper contains a concept for simulator development based on hardware (sensors and actuators) without significant changes in existing so- ftware; further development will providethe simulator with more similarities to a real ship system.
  • Korostil, Jerzy; Korostil, Olga (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper describes research related to the use of heuristics in diagnostic tasks of complex technical objects. To build heuristics, the use of text models for technical objects is proposed. Therefore, this paper examines output methods of heuristics from text models and their transformation into logical formulae suitable for use in diagnostic algorithms. Analysis has been carried out for tasks solved during diagnostics, and methods of using heuristics in certain tasks have been reviewed. It is proposed to use heuristics for decision making while implementing certain algorithm steps of monitoring tasks for diagnostic parameters that are solved during diagnostics.
  • Krystosik-Gromadzińska, Agata (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper characterizes an engine room as a place of a fire’s origin and its spread. It presents potential sources of fire and fire protection onboard. Examples of international rules and regulations are described as well. It also gives the statistics and some scenarios for fires and some recommendations for machine spaces. It presents problems of engine room fire safety, understood as a result of the analysis of different criteria. The engine room was chosen for analysis because many factors whose presence result in a fire could be found there in the way of combustible materials: fuel oil, lubrication oil, hydraulic oil and thermal oil consumed by the main engine, generator engine, boiler, thermal oil heater and hydraulic oil equipment, paints, solvents etc. Sources of po- tential fires are mainly the hot surfaces of exhaust gas pipes, turbochargers, boilers and waste oil incinerators, ignitions, sparks, static electricity etc. In addition, many engine room fires have an electrical source, such as electrical short-circuits and thermal overheating in the switchboards. Approximately 70% of fires in the engine room have typical scenarios: the outflow of combustible liquid and contact with a hot surface and can reach temperatures between 700–1000°C. They spread rapidly, their power and dynamism depending on the intensity of the outflow of the combustible liquid and its properties, but also the local conditions and the geometry of engine room as well. Fire safety in engine rooms is determined both by good design and the company’s and crew’s focus on fire prevention. Some of the recommendations are high standards of cleanliness in the engine room, regular checks of materials used for insulating high temperature surfaces, attention to fire risks when repairs and maintenance works are carried out and many other factors.
  • Monieta, Jan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents selected results of investigations on adverse events of ships throughout one year. The in- vestigations included mainly merchant vessels used to transport bulk material and heavy objects. Ships have been divided into functional systems and elements and into navigational and machine parts. An attempt was made to classify the causes of accidents and evaluate material losses. The quantitative analysis of the causes of the events leads to different conclusions than those reached on the basis of the analyses of losses. Although the failures on-board the vessel occurred more frequently, the costs of machine adverse events were larger. The most critical consequences was fire of a ship caused by loosening of the bleed screw of the fuel filter. Auxiliary engines of the vessel were operated in different external and internal conditions, and were fed by distillation fuel. As a consequence, the evacuation of the crew and fire suppression were required, using the CO 2 installation of the ship. The ship was stopped and deprived of its primary sources of electric energy. An analysis of the event was along with the elaboration of a plan of preventive measures. The results should be useful for selecting the monitored diagnostic objects of vessels.
  • Razaghian, Amir Hossein; Ghassemi, Hassan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper investigates the open-water characteristics of the 5-blade propeller with accelerating and deceler- ating ducts using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation code. In the first step, numerical open-water hydrodynamic characteristics of the propeller in the absence of a duct were validated using the available experimental data. The shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model was chosen, which shows less error in thrust and torque coefficients than others. In the second step, two accelerating and decelerating ducts, namely ducts 19A and N32, were modeled. In these simulations, the clearance value was selected at 3 percent of the propeller’s diameter and uniform-flow conditions were assumed. After analysis of the mesh sensitivity for the propeller thrust, the results were compared to the corresponding open-water condition values. In this regard, results of the hydrodynamic coefficients, pressure distribution, and coefficients on the propeller-blade surface and ducts were also analyzed and discussed.
  • Tryczak, Jakub Roman; Zeńczak, Wojciech (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Fluidized bed boilers have been widely used for many years in energetics but their application in shipbuilding has been incidental. The hydrodynamics of a fluidized bed is a complicated issue. If the swaying of a ship on a sea wave is taken into account, this issue will be further complicated. The choice of an appropriate mathemat- ical model is important from the viewpoint of building computer models for the simulation of a fluidized bed during disruptions that result from the ship swaying on sea waves. Fluidization is a two-phase flow process, which is described by many models such as the homogeneous-slip model or heterogeneous-slide model. The most popular models that show two-phase gas-solid or fluid-solid flow are the Euler-Euler and Euler-Lagrange models. The paper presents models that describe a ship’s fluidized bed.
  • Dramski, Mariusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The eXtensible Event Stream (XES) format is a new approach to illustrate the process data. Every ship journey is a sequence of some activities which can be read using different sources of data such ARPA, AIS etc. So we can say that this is a kind of process and its data can be organized in ordered and simple form. The most popular data formats to show the process data were of course XML and CSV. Currently, we can observe huge progress in the domain of process mining. Every year, new tools appeared and the need for some data standard became necessary. This standard is called Extensible Event Stream. In this paper, the use of XES format in navigational data is described.
  • Drwięga, Kinga; Gucma, Lucjan; Gralak, Rafał (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents a methodology for determining the components related to the heel of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers, excluding the heel of the vessel due to waves. The described method was applied to the description of under keel clearance of vessels approaching the outer port of Świnoujście. The method includes the determination of heel components caused by: draught reading errors, wind, current, tugboats and vessel maneuvers. Determination of the last component was carried out using a 2-stage method. In the first stage, simulation methods were used to identify the parameters of ship movement. In the second stage, the maximum heel of LNG carriers was calculated by analytical methods.
  • Januszewski, Jacek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Currently (April 2016) uninterrupted information about a ship’s position can be obtained from specialized elec- tronic position-fixing systems, in particular, Satellite Navigation Systems (SNSs) such as GPS and GLONASS and Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBASs) such as EGNOS or WAAS. The generic name given to all the above mentioned systems is Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Many models, designed for the ship’s bridge and provided by about a dozen manufacturers, are available on the world market. In Europe, one of the most comprehensive sources of knowledge on the global GNSS market is a report published, on average, every 15 months by the European GNSS Agency GSA. Another receiver survey is published each year in the January number of the magazine “GPS World”. The detailed analysis of market report and receiver survey, possible use of EGNOS and Galileo in the maritime market, and different maritime applications of GNSS equipment are described in this paper.
  • Kasyk, Lech (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The present article addresses the issue of crossing time on the fairway, modeling in restricted areas, where vessel traffic flow is disturbed. Data of movement time on the Świnoujście–Szczecin fairway was grouped according to ship type. The probability distributions describing the crossing time of different ship groups were analyzed. Using the Pearson chi-square goodness-of-fit and Cramer–von Mises tests it has been shown that the best distributions describing traffic time of all ship groups are the generalized extreme value distri- butions.
  • Kulbej, Eric (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Position determination of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) depends on the stability and accuracy of the measured time. However, since satellite vehicles (SVs) travel at velocities significantly larger than the receivers and, more importantly, the electromagnetic impulses propagate through changing gravitational poten- tials, enormous errors stemming from relativity-based clock offsets would cause a position error of about 11 km to be accumulated after one day. Based on the premise of the constancy of light, two major relativistic effects are described: time dilation and gravitational-frequency shift. Following the individual interests of the author, formulas of both are scrupulously derived from general- and special-relativity theory principles; moreover, in the penultimate section, the equations are used to calculate the author’s own numerical values of the studied parameters for various GNSSs and one Land Navigation Satellite System (LNSS).
  • Lisowski, Józef (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper describes an application of the dynamic programming method to determine the safety of one’s own ship trajectory during encounter of other ships. A dynamic model of the process, with kinematic constraints of state and determined by a three-layer artificial neural network has been used for the development of control pro- cedures. Non-linear activation functions in the first and second layers may be characterised by a tangent curve while the output layer is of a sigmoidal nature. The Neural Network Toolbox of the Matlab software has been used to model the network. The learning process used an algorithm of backward propagation of the error with an adaptively selected learning step. The considerations have been illustrated through an example implemented in a computer simulation using the algorithm for the determination of the safe ship trajectory in situations of en- counter of multiple ships, recorded on the ship’s radar screen in real navigational situation in the Kattegat Strait.
  • Posacka, Katarzyna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This publication describes the factors governing the development of containerization in Szczecin and Świnou- jście Seaports Authority, together with their organizational infrastructure and economy. These factors include port access to transportation facilities, which has a major influence on economic development and strengthens the position in the Polish market. Geographic location of both the port and the status and functioning of the Szczecin-Świnoujście fairway were taken into account. The amount of container handling in the ports described in the years from 2004 to 2015 was examined. The Szczecin and Świnoujście Seaports Authority is discussed in terms of size and progress of its changes, and handling capacity compared to other marine container terminals in Poland.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Szymański, Maciej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    A significant increase in demand for navigation support systems called Onboard Routing Systems (ORS) can be observed in the World’s merchant fleet. ORS is a navigation-support system that enables route programming to warn of dangers and navigation constraints and determine the required route-safety level directly onboard the vessel. In this article, an attempt to analyze and compare two ORS systems has been made: the Ship Per- formance Optimization System (SPOS), by the Meteo Consult Group; and the Bon Voyage system by Applied Weather Technologies (AWT). Individual items, methods, and criteria of both systems for optimization and weather forecasting models utilized have been compared. Particular attention has been paid to the usefulness of the systems regarding the problem of identification and avoidance of hazards such as tropical cyclones and wave resonance. Ergonomics of both systems has also been compared.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Szymański, Maciej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents the origin of Emission Control Area (ECA) zones, a timetable for their enforcement, criteria of their implementation and the principles and rules of navigation in these areas. Plans and areas of the next ECA zones envisaged for the future are presented. Least fuel route programming was presented, together with a description of safety rules during the change-over procedure in operations concerning the main engine and other ship systems. An attempt to identify the problems that may be encountered when programming the routes with the use of on-board routing systems, like Bon Voyage of AWT, leading through the ECA zones, has been made. Examples of such problems, taken from a true voyage of a postpanamx container vessel on a transpacific voyage, have been presented. A generalized algorithm for programming the route leading through the ECA zone according to the least fuel criterion has been presented.
  • Chłopińska, Ewa; Kowbel, Rafał (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Being the cleanest mine fuel due to the release of low exhaust emissions into the atmosphere, natural gas has been utilised by many fields of transport. A rapidly growing world market of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel has enabled to implement this fuel in urban transport. This article concentrates on presenting an alternative solution for the use of LNG fuel in urban buses to reduce exhaust emission using the example of Szczecin. On the basis of a significantly growing segment of the engines for the gas driven market, the article also shows the possible costs arising from the use of LNG fuel in urban buses of Szczecin. The impact to the natural envi- ronmental from the use of diesel fuel from vehicles was analysed. Based on the exhaust emission analysis this article shows the difference between using a fuel which emits less noise and is a cleaner energy source with high energy efficiency and the fuel used by carriers.
  • Hann, Mieczysław; Piotrowski, Leszek; Woś, Krzysztof (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article addresses the issue of the transport of goods on the Oder Waterway (Odrzańska Droga Wodna, ODW), in terms of its usefulness for the transport of containers in the face of limitations arising from the hydro- technical conditions of the river and the modernisation programme. A realistic estimate leads to the conclusion that by 2030 the CEMT Class III classification may be achieved in the upper and middle sections. Combined river and land transport of containers has been proposed as an applicable solution, considering the present condition and the predicted development and modernisation of the waterway within the next years. The main feature of this transportation concept is the principle of transporting multiple layers of containers on inland ships, reducing the cost of transport of individual containers. Sections of the ODW that meet the parameters of the CEMT Class III, or higher, will be used in such a way. In points of contact with sections that do not meet those parameters, loading points will be organised where the upper layers of containers will be removed from the barge and transferred either to land transport or a loading barge capable of going under low bridges. The article presents analysis of the effect of the main parameters of the river and land system of container transport on its economic effectiveness. Those parameters are: the number of layers of containers on a barge, percentage of the entire route covered by land transport means, number and time of transhipments, and speed relations. Relationships between these parameters have been established, together with the principles of their selection, assuming the main criterion to be gaining profit by using combined transport in comparison with land transport. Examples of combined transport have been presented on the Gliwice–Świnoujście and Gliwice– Hamburg routes, including progress in modernizing the Middle Oder.
  • Kozerska, Monika (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The dynamic development of road transport has caused an imbalance in transport systems. For the balance of the transport system, an increasingly important role should be played by networks such as railways and inland waterways, which, due to ecological aspects and minimal participation in the generation of external costs, are the most socially friendly. The layout and length of inland waterways in Poland has remained at a similar level for years. The specificity of the waterway infrastructure influences the factors that shape the demand for transportation by inland waterways. The navigation conditions impact directly the main design parameters of the ships used for transportation on inland waterways, including the relatively small carrying capacity of the barges, as well as the volume of traffic. An inadequate development of navigable waterways in Poland, con- cerning both natural elements (channeled rivers, free-flowing channels) and shipping parameters (discharge dimensions, depth and width of the trail, height of bridges), affects the specificity of inland navigation and relegates it to a marginal role in the Polish transport system. The share of inland waterway transport for total freight decreased from 0.8% to 0.4% between the years 2000 and 2014. The aim of this article is to draw attention to the fact that inland shipping services, in the transport market, are sufficient to determine the existence of waterways. All other factors only stimulate or restrict its place in the transport system. The preferential use of natural waterways is the essential limitation which restricts their adaptation to the changing transport needs. Thus, the density of waterways is much lower compared to other transport networks and the development of potential inland waterway transport is primarily determined by the quality and spatial arrangement of the existing waterways.
  • Lewandowski, Piotr (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The seven-year period to adapt internal law to EU regulations was given to new Member States on 1 May 2004 and ended in 2011. The highly-developed western states, fearing that their internal markets in fields such as transport services may be threatened, adopted a number of new regulations. Regulation (EC) No. 1072/2009 of the European Parliament is on common rules for access to the international road-haulage market, and despite introducing numerous restrictions, was to regulate cabotage operations in all Member States. However, the pro- tection of each State’s own interests proved more important than the integrity of the Community and therefore some of the states, including Germany, have introduced severe limitations for foreign carriers, forcing them to observe the Minimum Wage Act (MiLoG).
  • Łozowicka, Dorota; Kaup, Magdalena; Machowski, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article analyzes the concept of multipurpose inland residential platforms. It presents the existing solutions and the applications of floating residential structures in Europe, including houseboats and floating barges. Further on, the paper describes the possibilities and main purposes of using multipurpose inland platforms (residential, tourist or military). In addition, an algorithm is presented for selecting the right concept depending on the demand and the infrastructural conditions of inland harbors and marinas. Three variants of residential platforms are identified and the features of some of the solutions are discussed. The expected benefits for dif- ferent sectors of the economy derived from using residential platforms are also explored. The aforementioned analysis prescribes the directions for further research aiming to ensure effective implementation of the present- ed concepts.
  • Smolnik, Paweł (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Despite the assumption of government documents to support inland waterways, degradation of the technical condition of waterways and depreciation of fleet ship-owners is actually occurring. At the marginal importance of inland waterway transport policy, the government also shows a negligible share of the transport sector in the use of EU funds. The Sectoral Operational Programme Transport 2004–2006 does not provide for EU funds to co-finance investments for inland waterway transport. Small funds for this purpose were obtained only in the framework of the Operational Programme Infrastructure and Environment 2007–2013. It should be noted, how- ever, that during the control of the Ministry of Transport, Construction and Maritime Economy – in cooperation with the National Water Management – efforts were led to ensure that the new 2014–2020 financial perspective for the tasks related to the improvement of infrastructure of inland water transport were granted before aid. Against the background of European trends in developed countries of the European Union (EU), the Polish inland waterways are not important in the transport of goods, but instead the transport of persons confined to tourism and local – to supplement the motor transport infrastructure (river ferries). For many years Poland has experienced a decrease in both freight and inland waterways, as well as in their participation in all transport modes. The aim of this article is to assess the activities of government administration in the performance of statutory tasks related to the development and operation of inland waterway transport in Poland.
  • Hącia, Ewa (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The aim of this article is to point to the phenomenon of increasing concentration of tourism in the Polish seaside regions. The study involved four port cities, located in two seaside voivodeships: West Pomeranian (Szczecin, Świnoujście) and Pomeranian (Gdańsk, Gdynia). They are cities where seaports of major importance for the national economy are located. The analysis of tourist traffic in these cities covers the years 1995–2014. This analysis formed the basis for the forecast to 2020. The results of extrapolation of trends are presented in the figures. Moreover, the procedure employed and structure of the article were adapted to the aim of this work.
  • Kijewska, Monika (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper proposes a model of the interactions between surface currents and small, moving objects. These objects are immersed in water so that the part extending above the water is no larger than a human head. These interactions are defined as the weighted-directed graph. The basis for determining the edge weights are the directions of the surface currents. The speeds of these currents are used to calculate the time of moving objects. According to the modelling method of the surface-current influence on small objects, presented in this paper, it is possible to implement an application supporting search-and-rescue-operation planning. This method can be used to locate small objects, such as survivors, when planning search-and-rescue operations. Thus, the routes of these objects moving together with surface-water masses can be predicted using this method.
  • Wójcik, Anna; Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    One of the most significant phases for automation of communication processes in shipping is building a knowl- edge base for inference processes. Communication processes include: exchange of information, perception of communication and interaction between navigators. Computing with words has been used to represent infer- ence processes covering imprecise concepts that are characteristic of natural languages. Elements of classical predicate calculus were adopted as a basic form of writing inference rules. Methods for constructing a knowl- edge base were chosen. The knowledge base architecture was proposed. This article also presents examples of inference rules in a knowledge base for automatic communication in shipping.
  • Chybowski, Leszek; Kuźniewski, Bolesław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The use of wave energy was studied at the Maritime University of Szczecin. The two main subjects were wave-energy conversion and using wave energy to protect the seashore against the hazardous effects of ex- treme waves. A construction of new technologies were outlined. Future research and intended cooperation were presented.

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