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44 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, no. 44 / 2015


Recent Submissions

  • Chybowski, Leszek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, It is with great pleasure that I announce the latest, 44th issue of the quarterly Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin. In this issue we have published articles related to the naval industry and transport engineering. I am convinced that you will find this issue both informative and enjoyable to read. The section on marine engineering contains original manuscripts on the analysis of modern vessel propulsion systems, research on single polymer polyester composites, new marine machinery solutions (improved accuracy of heeling angle measurement and steering gear performance) and selected topics within the field of ship design and thermal diagnostics. The navigation section contains articles on global navigations satellite systems and radar technology on merchant ships, optimization of sea routes, approximating container ship resistance characteristics, navigational equipment in the Northern Sea Route and safety issues on passenger vessels in the Baltic Sea. The transportation engineering section contains articles on improving the effectiveness and safety during transport, at ports and supply systems. Additionally, this issue also features articles examining the cause and effect analysis of ship fires, new radar systems on the Polish coast, crisis situation management and aspects of quality assessment. I warmly encourage all the readers to send us their thoughts and opinions on this issue. I also invite researchers to submit papers to be considered for publication by the Journal. In order to access the electronic version of this and previous issues please visit http://scientific-journals.eu/. Leszek Chybowski, PhD Editor-in-Chief
  • Behrendt, Cezary (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper describes such quantitative characteristics and operational parameters for marine turbogenerator as: efficiency, and steam consumption per unit or hour for various loads. Characteristic numbers and operational parameters were estimated from the results of operational tests of a turbogenerator aboard a petroleum tanker.
  • Gucma, Maciej; Bryll, Katarzyna; Gawdzińska, Katarzyna; Przetakiewicz, Wojciech; Piesowicz, Elżbieta (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    A single polymer composite comprises a composite built out of fibres and a matrix, both made of the same or a very similar polymer material, where the components may differ with: molecular mass, density or branching degree. Such thermoplastic composites provide the beneficial mechanical characteristics required for reinforced materials, and their great advantage is the ease of full material recycling after the end of use. The aim of the presented work is to provide a description of the manufacturing technology, with a definition of the possibility for the waste of single polymer polyester composites to undergo a full material recycling process, oriented towards use in shipbuilding. A proposed idea for recycling is in the preparatory stage and its assumptions and the process followed will be the subject of a patent application. This work forms part of the studies realized in the scope of the REP-SAIL Project under the ERA-NET Transport III Initiative Future Travelling, carried out at the Maritime University of Szczecin, and the prepared doctoral thesis entitled “Manufacturing, shaping of operational properties and recycling of single polymer composite materials”.
  • Kotowicz, Janusz; Brzęczek, Mateusz; Job, Marcin (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper describes a combined cycle power plant with carbon capture installation in a post-combustion technology. Carbon dioxide is separated from flue gas by using a chemical absorption method with monoethanolamine (MEA) as a sorbent. Separated carbon dioxide is compressed in order to prepare for transportation to the storage place. This paper identifies the electric efficiencies and other characteristic parameters of power plants before and after implementation of CO2 capture installation, as well as the power plant efficiency drop, and the improvement of ecological characteristics related to the implementation of this installation. The implementation of the installation described herein is associated with the efficiency loss caused by the auxiliary power for additional installations. The CO2 separation installation is powered by heat energy required for reclaiming the sorbent. This energy is taken in the form of steam extracted from the steam cycle, thus reducing the steam turbine power output, while the CO2 compression installation is powered by electric energy.
  • Naus, Krzysztof; Wąż, Mariusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article describes studies that evaluate the accuracy of measuring a ship’s heeling angle with an inclinometer. It does so by comparing inclinometer readings with benchmark measurements made with the optical method. The first part of the article describes the measurement station used for gathering measurement data. This station included an inclinometer and a CCD camera, and was used to process digital images incorporating a horizon line to indicate the ship’s heeling angle. The second part of the article describes the data gathering process carried out on a ship at sea. The final part describes a statistical analysis which compares the angular measurements based on an inclinometer with simultaneous optical benchmark measurements.
  • Stefanowski, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents properties of a follow-up system executing ship’s rudder deflection using a constant delivery hydraulic pump. Furthermore, a solution is discussed which increases static and dynamic accuracy of such a system using the rudder angular velocity signal. This signal has been used for changing the level of a three-position controller insensitivity. The paper also shows the method of determination of the function describing variations of dead-zone width of the three-point controller. Two kinds of such function are shown, namely linear and quadratic. A computer model was prepared in MATLAB-Simulink environment, showing the operation of the system with correction of error signal, which carries out given by function variations of points of switching. Also included are the simulation results of the described solution, indicating a significant enhancement of accuracy of rudder angle control process for the steady state as well as during transients.
  • Szelangiewicz, Tadeusz; Żelazny, Katarzyna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    During ship design, service speed is one of the crucial parameters in determining the operational economy of the vessel. As sufficiently exact calculation methods applicable to preliminary design stage are lacking, the so-called contract speed, the speed which a ship reaches in calm water, is usually cited. Żelazny (2015) developed a parametric method for calculating total ship resistance under actual weather conditions (wind, waves, sea current). This paper presents a parametric model of a ship’s propulsion system (screw propeller – propulsion engine) as well as a method, based on both the resistance and propulsion system models, of calculating the mean statistical value of a ship’s service speed under the seasonal weather conditions occurring on shipping lines. The method makes use only of basic design parameters, and may be applied in preliminary design phase of container ships.
  • Świderski, Waldemar (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The main criterion for selecting materials for marine structures is the requirement of strength, which in shipbuilding is met by steels and high strength aluminum alloys. Internal and external forces acting on the hull of the ship have to be considered during the design process. There are also such factors as wave strength and sea conditions, waves hitting into the bow of the ship, vibrations, thermal differences, load displacement, loads caused by starting and landing aircraft on aircraft carriers, loads that occur upon the sudden immersion in and emerging from water in the case of submarines, effects of fatigue, corrosion cracking, etc. Eddy current thermography is a new non-destructive testing technique for detecting cracks in electro conductive materials. It combines the well-established inspection techniques of eddy current testing and thermography. The technique uses induced eddy currents to heat the sample being tested. Defects are then detected by changes in the flow(s) of induced eddy currents, which are revealed by thermal visualization and captured by an infrared (IR) camera. The paper discusses code for the numerical modeling of nondestructive testing by eddy current IR thermography and of IR testing of materials used in marine structures. The ThermoEdCur computer program developed by Vavilov was used to select suitable heating parameters of the tested metal sheet samples in order to detect subsurface defects.
  • Banyś, Paweł; Heymann, Frank; Noack, Thoralf (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is widely used for reporting vessel movements and broadcasting additional information related to the current voyage or constant parameters like the IMO number or the overall dimension of the hull. Since dynamic AIS data is shared mostly without human interaction, and is not flawless, the static AIS content edited manually is vulnerable to human error. This work introduces a simple vessel motion pattern approach that determines the probable foredeck/afterdeck location of the GNSS reference used by the AIS transponder, and compares it to the hull parameters obtained from the static AIS data, to find observable errors in the static AIS configuration of the mount point of the GNSS reference antenna.
  • Felski, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Many radio-navigation systems dating from the seventies and eighties of the last century were replaced by a single Global Positioning System (GPS) a dozen or so years ago. However, for several years the opinion that the GPS monopoly is becoming dangerous has been expressed increasingly often in navigational literature. Even when supplemented with other systems from this group, such as Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS), it cannot be treated as the source of reliable and universally accessible navigational information. This results from the similar sensibility of all GNSS systems to the same disturbances as a consequence of using a similar band of radiofrequencies and a similarly low powered signal. There is a growing recognition in the maritime world that GNSS will not provide the resilience required because of these common vulnerabilities. The World Wide Radio Navigation System should be seen as a combination of systems, which can cooperate and work effectively even when GNSS does not work. Lately different authors commonly point-out the potential advantages of a modified Loran (e-Loran), however it still remains only a potential option – particularly in the southern hemisphere, where this system has never existed. Meanwhile as the general threat of the disturbance of GNSS systems increases, the matter of initiating alternative possibilities becomes more urgent. A proposal which combines lower financial outlays with adjustments to the existing techniques and the law in force is desirable. In this context radar seems to be the attractive option, however for utilization as an alternative to GNSS it should reach considerably higher technical performances. In the paper the general limitations in the use of existing radar as a means of ships’ positioning are presented, and information published about the investigation into the methods for overcoming these limitations is discussed. The accessible information appears to prove that a greater accuracy of position can be achieved with modified radar in the future, especially if the suitable navigational infrastructure is present on shore. However, the level of accuracy of this method does not seem to compare favorably with GNSS.
  • Galić, Stipe; Lušić, Zvonimir; Vidan, Pero; Skočibušić, Mihaela Bukljaš (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Today, almost 80% of cargo is transported by sea. Most of the global maritime shipping operations are performed in the direction East – West, through the southern routes, e.g. Singapore – Suez Canal – Gibraltar – Europe. The total fuel cost is the major concern and the main drawback of these routes. According to the latest statistics and analyses, the price of fuel is growing and such a trend will cause a great impact on the economies of developing countries. For these reasons, new alternative maritime routes, in which the optimisation of transportation in the maritime transport network can be achieved, are to be found. There is a possibility of establishing such routes in the areas of high latitudes where climatological changes and diminishing ice open up entirely new possibilities for shipping and present completely new challenges in the global shipping industry. Through the comparative analysis of the main routes and the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) method, this paper discusses the advantages, potential and importance, as well as the level of reliability, threats and disadvantages of using the areas of high latitude in maritime transport.
  • Łozowicka, Dorota; Kaup, Magdalena (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article analyzes some maritime accidents involving passenger ships that occurred in the Baltic Sea. Existing forms of passenger transport by sea have been identified, and passenger-ship accident statistics in the years 2003 to 2013 are presented. We discuss threats that may exist in passenger transport such as, technical, operational and navigational risks, as well as threats caused by human error and bad weather. In the last part of the paper, we analyze the cause and effect of selected incidents of passenger ships in the Baltic Sea, which include the grounding of the ship MS Amorella, the Stena Spirit ferry collision with infrastructure, and the collision of two ships, the MS Gotland with HSC Gotlandia II. The impact of the human factor on the safety of passenger ships is also analyzed.
  • Pastusiak, Tadeusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The reduction of sea ice area in the Arctic has increased the availability of the Russian Arctic seas for navigation by vessels of relatively low ice class. The signing of the Act on the Northern Sea Route (NSR) by the President of the Russian Federation has created the possibility for ships from countries other than Russia to use the NSR. However, the NSR is very poorly recognized in terms of navigation by countries other than Russia. The author of the paper analyzed the NSR navigation infrastructure components in terms of the reliability of the information provided by the main producers of nautical publications for initial voyage planning. For the purpose of this analysis an indicator of the quality of the navigation infrastructure was developed. The value of this indicator, obtained on the basis of the above analysis, is low. Navigators that collect information during the initial stage of voyage planning may be misled if they use nautical publications originating from only one global producer of charts and publications. If the navigators act in accordance with good seamanship and familiarize themselves with information from two or three global producers of nautical publications, they may be disoriented due to the receipt of divergent information. It seems that before the voyage begins and preferably before planning a trip, the master or owner of the vessel intending to carry out a voyage by the NSR should first use the most current local knowledge in the possession of the Northern Sea Route Administration. This is also where information can be found as to where to obtain the most current and reliable information for initial voyage planning.
  • Safaei, Aliakbar; Ghassemi, Hassan; Ghiasi, Mahmoud (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In line with the ambition of ship-owners to preserve capital and reduce operational costs, the selection of an optimum, safe and secure route for an envisaged voyage has always been a challenge for ship-owners, masters, and engineers. Due to the many complexities and parameters that affect the selection of an optimal route, the topic has become very interesting to many researchers. Each of the parameters affecting the process of route selection has its own values and weights, and these values change depending on specific situations and objectives. This sensitivity to context increases the difficulty selecting the optimum route. In this research, the optimization of a tanker-sized VLCC voyage for predefined and different routes is addressed in order to identify the optimum route. To reduce the number of variable parameters, major values have been assigned to the ship profile and sea conditions. The time domain analysis and the solution of equations of motion are then performed. The proposed route is designed by using a Bezier curve, and this route is then optimized with the objective of decreasing fuel consumption using the Fletcher-Powell method. The resulting optimized route shows a 3.7% savings in fuel consumption
  • Salous, Mazen; Müller, Heiko; Bolles, André; Hahn, Axel (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The e-navigation strategy of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) aims to improve the safety of maritime traffic by increasing cooperation between several maritime stakeholders. The COSINUS (Bolles et al., 2014) project contributes to such a strategy by enabling an automated data exchange (observations, routes and maneuver plans) between ship-side and shore-side navigational systems, developing useful sensor fusion applications upon the new information available from data exchange and introducing new Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) to support the users of navigation systems. The project shows potential for improvement in maritime traffic safety by ensuring continuous awareness to all participants involved through sensor fusion applications, i.e. by providing all participants (mobile and stationary navigation systems) with a complete view at all times. These applications include detection of critical situations like radar shadowing areas, early and accurate prediction of potential collisions or closest point of approach (CPA) based on the exchanged routes, and improving the accuracy of radars by ensuring high quality data for obstructed or far away routes. The new HMI concepts introduced within the COSINUS project aim at highlighting critical maritime traffic situations. Thus, the users of such navigation systems supported with COSINUS facilities can easily detect such critical situations and react efficiently to avoid collisions, possible crowded areas and inefficient routes.
  • Szelangiewicz, Tadeusz; Żelazny, Katarzyna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    During ship design, its service speed is one of the crucial parameters that determine its future operational profitability. As sufficiently exact calculation methods applicable to preliminary design stage are lacking, the so-called contract speed, the speed a ship reaches in calm water, is usually specified during the draft stage. The service speed obtainable by a ship under real weather conditions (mainly wind and waves) is one of the most important parameters influencing a ship’s profitability on a given shipping route. This paper presents a parametric model of calculating total ship resistance on a given shipping route under actual weather conditions (wind, waves, sea current), that could be useful in the initial design of container ships.
  • Dzwonkowski, Jan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents a mathematical model of a leading line consisting of four beacons situated at the apexes of a rectangle. The ship handler compares angles between appropriate beacons to determine whether the vessel is in the middle of the fairway or not. This article assumes that the observer treats the two beacons on the front as a flat screen onto which rear beacons are projected. In this way he can estimate the quotients of sections created by appropriate beacons, from which he can find the lateral deviation from the waterway axis. This method of navigation is based on the Thales assertion. Described in detail, restrictions are the use of the model, precision assessment, and important in this respect, aspects of the waterway markings on Zalew Szczeciński.
  • Hahn, Axel; Gollücke, Volker; Buschmann, Carsten; Schweigert, Sören (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    “Safe voyage from berth to berth”: This is the goal of all e-Navigation strains driven by new technologies, new infrastructures, and new organizational structures on bridge, on shore, as well as in the cloud. To facilitate these efforts suitable engineering and safety/risk assessment methods are required. Understanding maritime transportation as a sociotechnical system allows the usage of system-engineering methods. Simulation-based test beds for verification and validation (V +V) of e-Navigation technologies are important methods to obtain functional safety and reliability. The modeling and simulation toolset HAGGIS is a cosimulation system for the evaluation of e-Navigation concepts and systems. It provides a maritime traffic simulator and a physical world (n-body) simulator and services for finding rare events of failures. HAGGIS is accompanied by the physical test bed LABSKAUS, which implements a reference port and waterways. This paper describes an integrated and seamless approach for developing new e-Navigation technologies starting with virtual simulation-based safety assessment and ending in physical real-world demonstrations. It gives an overview of the actual test bed and introduces requirements, concepts and elements of HAGGIS and LABSKAUS, which are joined in the e-Maritime Integrated Reference Platform (eMIR) test bed.
  • Januszewski, Jacek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    To date, a ship’s position can generally be obtained from functional satellite navigation systems (SNS), such as Global Position Systems (GPS and GLONASS), and Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS), such as (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS), GPS-Aided Geo Augmented Navigation system (GAGAN), MTSAT Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) and Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). Sometimes these systems are collectively called Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Two more SNS, Galileo and BeiDou, one more SBAS, System for Differential Corrections and Monitoring (SDCM), and new regional systems, such as Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) in Japan and Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) in India, are also under construction. Information about all of these 11 systems is available on the internet. The number of links and the type of the information obtained from two search engines, Google and Bing, for the different keywords concerning each system are shown in the paper. Additionally, the analysis of the character and usefulness of the information placed on the pages of governmental organizations and institutions administering the above-mentioned systems, manufacturers of the satellites, receivers and different kinds of the institutional users is also provided.
  • Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    A new approach is proposed for safety investigations of complex multistate systems. These systems have dependent components, called critical infrastructures, with variable operating conditions. The safety function of the critical infrastructure system is defined and determined for an exemplary “m out of l” critical infrastructure. In the fully-developed model, it is assumed that system components have multistate exponential safety functions with interdependent departure rates from subsets of safety states. A critical infrastructure safety model is adopted for an oil pipeline transportation system operating in a maritime port.
  • Kujawski, Artur (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The aim of this paper is to use closed-circuit television (CCTV) to search and track moving objects in inland waterways. The area of the analysis is the part of the West Odra river between the Długi and Kolejowy bridges in Szczecin. The points of interest are chosen intentionally due to the risk of vessel collision with bridges. The results of the research into the implemented methods of tracking objects could be utilized in the future to extend inland navigation services, which could be used by the captains of the ships and River Information Services operational personnel as well.
  • Luft, Mirosław; Pietruszczak, Daniel; Szychta, Elżbieta; Szychta, Leszek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper outlines the use of the fractional calculus for dynamic measurements while describing dynamic properties of measuring transducers, which the authors consider to be an original and unique achievement. The aim of this paper is to investigate how models of accelerometers based on the fractional calculus notation convey their dynamic behaviour in comparison to models represented by differential equations of integer orders and to the processing characteristics of their real counterparts. This paper presents state-of-the-art knowledge, simulation and laboratory studies of measuring transducers to measure acceleration (accelerometers), considering them a representative group of the measuring transducers used in transportation facilities. Measurement errors and comparisons of classical and fractional models in terms of dynamic properties were examined. The advantages of fractional calculus in modelling dynamic elements are also indicated. Tests are executed in the MATLAB & Simulink programme.
  • Macík, Martin; Kramárová, Katarína; Achimský, Karol; Majerčák, Peter (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article discusses the possibility of optimizing a particular postal transportation network within the scope of the main mail processing and distribution centres in Žilina, one of four main mail processing and distribution centres of the national postal operator in Slovakia – Slovenská pošta (referred to here, in English, as the Slovak Post). The authors compare the 3-level model of postal transportation network with the 4-level model of postal transportation network that is currently used in areas other than Žilina. When comparing both models, the authors also takes into account the processing operations of postal items required before the mail is delivered to its addressee – both models accept the technological procedures of processing and handling postal items. In addition, the authors of the presented article solves the allocated task through the construction of the distance matrix to find out if the actual location of the main mail processing and distribution centre and its facilities in the city of Žilina is optimal, from the point of view of transportation distance from this centre and the other supporting processing centres located at the second and third levels respectively within the analysed postal transportation network models.
  • Mink, Michael; Heck, Bernhard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Although integrity concepts for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are ubiquitous in the aviation community, integrity algorithms of comparable maturity have not yet been developed for maritime users. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) specifies requirements different from those specified by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). These different requirements affect the design of the integrity algorithms with respect to integrity risk allocation and threat space. This paper describes a novel integrity algorithm based on conditions valid for maritime users. The performance of the novel integrity algorithm has been assessed and compared to a conventional Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) approach consistent with IMO requirements.
  • Pružinký, Michal; Mihalčová, Bohuslava (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article highlights the key issues of outsourcing in the field of airport ground services. Both airlines and airports have gradually started to outsource these services, following governmental decisions in several countries regarding the commercialization and privatization of airports. Our research was based on data available from different airports showing a general trend in service outsourcing. There are particular situations in which both the airports and airlines take measures for insourcing services, mainly those related to passengers’ security in today’s global security conditions with threats of potential terrorist attacks – even when this is known to be a more expensive method of doing business. Modern technology provides conditions in which it is possible to reduce the number of operators, controllers and other staff, which gives the same chance for insourcing and outsourcing. Our contribution provides a general idea of outsourcing applied to the air business. The company cannot do everything – specialisation and differentiation means that an enterprise may carry out its business better and cheaper and can thus offer this service to other enterprises.
  • Dziula, Przemysław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents the principle aspects of key European Union legislation concerning critical infrastructure protection. Fundamental definitions and assumptions covered by the respective documents, with a special focus on critical infrastructure, its identification and protection, are also included. Basic outcomes of the regulations, reflecting other acts of law concerning the rights and obligations of States within their territorial sea and exclusive economic zone, regarding specific matters related to the Baltic Sea area and EU member states located around it, have also been introduced. Some approaches to the modelling of ECI identification is also given, and analysis of the latest EU activities, associated with the adaptation of critical infrastructure systems to climate change predictions, is introduced. As the vulnerability to the impact of climate change is of key importance for systems operating within the Baltic area, essential findings that apply to them are also covered.
  • Książek, Dorota; Ligarski, Mariusz J. (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In the work the proposals of quality management systems in organizations are determined, according to the opinion of quality management representatives. The analysis of these systems’ functions is presented among the organizations that took part in the Polish Quality Award contest. The remarks concerning the process of system creation, maintenance and development were subject to analysis. Special attention was paid to the problems occurring at particular stages. Considerations were made on the basis of a survey conducted on a group of representatives from the enterprises submitted to the Polish Quality Award contest. The results were supplemented with the authors’ ideas and experiences.
  • Kwiecińska, Barbara (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper analyses the causes of fires on board merchant ships and fishing vessels. The study attempts to identify the causes of fire occurrence on board ships and to determine their interrelations using the relations diagram, also known as the interrelationship diagram or digraph. This diagram identifies relations not only between causes and effects but also between two or more causes. Elements of the diagram, which have the greatest number of directed connections from/to, are the starting points for further ship safety analysis. The relations diagram is used as a basis for planning corrective measures and actions directly increasing shipping safety at sea. Knowing the various causes of fire occurrence, it is possible to eliminate or to reduce their number in the future by revising and drawing up relevant maritime transport regulations. This, in turn, can enhance shipping safety.
  • Tchórzewska-Cieślak, Barbara; Pietrucha-Urbanik, Katarzyna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents the concept of safety in water distribution systems, which is an important issue connected with its functioning in crisis situations. The research undertaken is directed towards methods of safety assessment relating closely to current world trends, aiming to ensure safety of water supply and use. The paper pays special attention to water consumer safety. Safety levels were assumed on the basis of failure intensity, exposure of water consumers and a number of undesirable event groups. Individual values of the immediate risk index were presented and three categories were distinguished as permissible, tolerable, or unacceptable risk categories, according to presumed action. The risk index can characterize the safety of the functioning of technical systems. The risk index definition is considered as the product of threat ranking. The paper contains the original proposal for a new method of risk analysis and assessment.
  • Wawruch, Ryszard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents the radar system installed by the Polish maritime administration within the scope of the “National System of Maritime Safety (KSBM)” project. One of the main objectives of introducing the system is to improve the safety of navigation on the fairways, routes and in traffic separation schemes and ports, as well as the environmental protection of the coastal waters of Polish maritime areas. Radars are intended mainly for the early detection and accurate tracking of ships for the purpose of preventing maritime accidents and pollution of the sea and coast line. They are connected to a digital exchange network that allows remote handling and data transfer in relation to radar station – control centre – radar station and between control centres. The basic technical parameters of the purchased radars, installation position and the detection ranges, calculated by means of the CARPET program for objects and conditions defined in the IALA Recommendation V-128, are described.

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