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  • Abramowicz-Gerigk, Teresa; Burciu, Zbigniew; Jachowski, Jacek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Low controllability under strong winds presents a problem for the operation of inland vessels, which can be improved using passive bow rudders and transverse thrusters. Bow thrusters can sufficiently improve the manoeuvrability at low speeds, but an unsolved problem is course maintaining and yaw checking of a vessel at medium and high speeds. This paper proposes the use of a bow steering system in which the bow rotors generate a Magnus force. The first physical test model of the system showed promising results and that much more research must be performed before this system can be used in industrial applications. The paper presents the results of a numerical study on the flow field generated by bow rotors. The first stage of a ship’s turn using the bow rotors was used to determine the dependence of the expected steering force on the inflow velocity and rotational speed of the rotors. The influence of the flow generated by the bow steering system on river banks and quay walls during manoeuvres was also discussed.
  • Dąbrowski, Paweł S.; Specht, Cezary; Koc, Władysław; Wilk, Andrzej; Czaplewski, Krzysztof; Karwowski, Krzysztof; Specht, Mariusz; Chrostowski, Piotr; Szmagliński, Jacek; Grulkowski, Sławomir (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Determining the course of a railway track axis using satellite methods relies on ensuring the precise assembly of GNSS receivers in dedicated measuring devices. Depending on the number of receivers, solutions that are based on placing the apparatus directly above the railway track axis (as well as in eccentric positions) are used to indirectly obtain data to form the basis of the desired results. This publication describes the installation of five GNSS receivers on a mobile measuring platform as part of the InnoSatTrack project. The methodology and the procedure of the geodetic measurements required to obtain the geometrical configuration of the measuring apparatus, specified in the technical project, are presented. The publication presents the principles of total station measurement methods as well as the steps taken to achieve precise results from staking out. The process of acquiring the same configuration of the GNSS receivers, based on the geometry of the squares on the two measuring platforms that were used in the research, has been shown. The final determination of the position of the receivers did not exceed an error of 0.010 m with an average error of 0.003 m, despite the occurrence of mounting difficulties. The results have demonstrated the high credibility and effectiveness of the presented solution.
  • Gerigk, Mateusz; Jachowski, Jacek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents an approach for providing innovative technology by applying fluid mechanics to the field of architectural design. The aim is to make a building’s shape profitable and strengthen environmental protection by using the wind force to create an integrated wind absorption definition for a multifunctional building system model. Furthermore, taking control of the wind flow over an object can have an impact on not only the designed object itself but also on its surroundings. In modern coastal cities there are issues associated with the wind and ventilation that need to be solved. The presented system model and the calculations conducted are part of the new definition of a multifunctional object and the wind force as a significant subsystem. Systematizing this scope can be useful in design practice.
  • Jurecki, Rafał S. (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents the legal requirements for shock absorbers in suspension, for a vehicle in which they are mounted to be allowed on Polish roads. A short description of the working methodology of the device used to determine the effectiveness of a shock absorber’s damping (sometimes referred to as relative wheel adhesion) is given on the basis of the Eusama method. The method of carrying out the tests on a sample of five passenger cars are described, along with the tests carried out at different temperatures for shock absorbers installed in a suspension system. The results of the diagnostic tests of the shock absorbers carried out on a diagnostic stand, in accordance with the Eusama method, are presented. The results confirm that the ambient conditions – the temperature of the chassis components (including the shock absorbers) – only slightly influence the values of their damping efficiency.
  • Kotowska, Izabela (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Transport is a considerable source of pollution in cities. The social impacts of transport activities result from emissions of pollutants, greenhouse gases, and noise, as well as traffic accidents. Not every urban investment that reduces such ‘external’ effects of transport will be found acceptable by the public. In order to assess and communicate the social impacts of investments, it is necessary to calculate external costs appropriately. This article discusses issues with estimating the social costs and benefits of transport-related investments in cities. The article also provides a classification of social benefits from urban transport investments and proposes a general methodology for estimating such benefits. Due to the versatility of urban investments, there can be no single, universal method. The article proposes methods for analysing social costs and benefits on the basis of two sample urban investments.
  • Maruszczak, Marianna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents the activities of the European Union (EU) and Poland to develop inland waterways as an environmentally-friendly transport method. The paper presents positive aspects of transferring part of the load from other methods of transport, such as railways or cars, to inland vessels. It shows the level of development of inland navigation in the EU and indicates favorable natural conditions for doing so. The article addresses the issues of the insufficient state of waterway infrastructure in Poland and presents measures to improve it. It also identifies the main EU and government programs seeking to standardize a common transport space of the EU by developing inland navigation.
  • Popik, Adrian; Zaniewicz, Grzegorz; Wawrzyniak, Natalia (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Video surveillance on both marine and inland waters still only plays a mainly auxiliary role in vessel traffic observation and management. The newest technical achievements in visual systems allow camera images to be used in more sophisticated tasks, such as automatic vessel recognition and identification in observed areas. With the use of deep learning algorithms and other artificial intelligence methods, such as rough sets and fuzzy sets, new functions can be designed and implemented in monitoring systems. In this paper the challenges that were encountered and the technology that has been developed in managing video streams are presented as well as the images needed for tests and proper operation of the designed Ship Recognition and Identification System (SHREC). The current technologies, typical setups and capabilities of cameras, with regard to existing on-water video monitoring systems, are also presented. The aspects of collecting the test data in the Szczecin Water Junction area are also described. The main part of the article focuses on presenting the video data pre-processing, storing and managing procedures that have been developed for the purposes of the SHREC system.
  • Szelangiewicz, Tadeusz; Żelazny, Katarzyna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents regression formulas for calculating the friction resistance RF and the total resistance RT of ship models in the 2.0–10.0 m range. The method for calculating the total resistance is novel and applies to the design models of an unmanned surface vessel (USV) for experimental testing of autonomous control. For both regression models (RF and RT), statistical and substantive tests were performed (the results of the calculations were compared with the experimental measurements). In both cases, convincing results were obtained, which have confirmed the possibility of their use at the preliminary design stage of unmanned ship models.
  • Gwizdała, Jerzy Piotr; Kędzierska-Szczepaniak, Angelika (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Environmental protection has increasingly adopted economic dimensions, and the environment is treated as a “capital” that can be used for economic and social development. This capital must be preserved for future generations, which is why increasing attention has been paid to taking pro-ecological actions to protect the environment. In order to improve the quality of the environment, it is necessary to make various types of investments in it. The Sustainable Development Initiative assumes that the economic growth of countries should be implemented in a manner consistent with the natural conditions of nature. The aim of this study was to identify and present the current possibilities of financing sustainability in Poland after joining the European Union, taking into account the risk of undertaking such an investment.
  • Owczarek, Tomasz; Rogulski, Mariusz; Czechowski, Piotr O. (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This study presents an assessment of the equivalence of measurements of particulate matter PM10 concentrations using a low-cost electronic device as compared to the reference method. Data for the study were collected in accordance with the guidelines for research equivalence of the two devices operating in parallel. On this basis, a model correcting raw measurement results was developed. The best results were obtained for the model having the form of a second degree polynomial and taking into account air temperature. Corrected measurement results were used in the equivalence testing procedure. As a result, confirmation of equivalence was obtained for the vast majority of data sets generated from original measurements. This confirms the usefulness of the device as a tool for monitoring air quality.
  • Czaja-Cieszyńska, Hanna; Kochański, Konrad (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The RESPECT Index (RI) is the first index of socially responsible companies in Central and Eastern Europe and has been operating in Poland since 2009. In accordance with its philosophy, the RI includes listed companies showing the highest standards of quality in corporate governance and information governance regarding their impacts on the natural environment, society, and employees. Do the non-financial reports of these companies confirm that they meet these standards? This article attempts to answer that question, which aim can also be described as the qualitative assessment of the non-financial reports of the largest listed Polish companies in the RESPECT Index, with particular emphasis on analyzing the structure and content of the companies’ non-financial information disclosures. In order to achieve this goal, the paper first defines non-financial information and its usefulness to stakeholders in modern enterprises. Secondly, the paper discusses problematic aspects of non-financial reporting. And the third part of the paper is a qualitative analysis of the non-financial reports of 12 out of the 31 Polish companies in the RESPECT Index. Finally conclusions are that the research conducted confirmed a wide variety of these companies’ disclosures, and on the other hand, exposed some deficiencies in published reports, including their narrative character, limited comparability across time and space, and lack of external verification. All this shows that it is not enough to be a socially responsible company; you must also report this activity skillfully. This study used the following research methods: literature review, analysis of legal regulations, desk research, and inductive and synthetic reasoning strategies, in order to formulate conclusions.
  • Dębicka, Olga; Gutowski, Tomasz; Borodo, Adam (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Development and innovation in the e-commerce sector over the last decade have been extremely dynamic. Market development has increasingly been driven by the changing behaviour of consumers shopping online and the growing number of e-stores. This article identifies the pro-innovation areas and actions which are creating special value propositions for e-buyers in Poland and assesses their impact on shopping decisions for each generation (X, Y, and baby boomers) by assessing the impacts of differences in the preferences of the generations regarding e-commerce. Each generation differs significantly from the others in terms of work, education, security, success in professional and personal life, and in terms of consumption. The characteristics of the individual generations and the levels of their digital competencies impact significantly on the ways in which a given generation makes purchases and what they expect during the purchasing process. In order to establish the key determinants of online purchasing decisions and attitudes towards innovation in e-commerce, an online survey was conducted. The sample included three generations of Polish internet users: 260 people at ages between 25 and 37 (generation Y); 200 people at ages between 38 and 50 (generation X) and 100 people at ages between 51 and 70 (the baby boomers’ generation). The structure of the article includes presentations of the problem against the background of relevant literature, the theoretical assumptions of the research, and its findings and conclusions.
  • Igielski, Michał (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents topics related to the main stakeholders of enterprises in the 21st century – employees operating in a market dominated by globalization and technological progress. To a large extent, they determine the competitive position of their organizations. To this end, the author describes the expectations of Polish employees as key stakeholders of the organization in which they are employed. Moreover, the author defines and describes the conditions that must be met to optimize the use of their potential. Good relations with this group of stakeholders is the basis for creating business strategies in the 21st century. The author also presents a description of his own research, which concerns the analysis of actions taken by companies aimed at creating optimal working conditions for their employees; this is also the main goal of this article. The analysis of source materials and research results indicated that employees played a large role in organizations and the need to implement dedicated tools and management methods. It should be obvious that the new economic realities force companies to invest in intangible resources, as it is thanks to them that it is possible to achieve market success. The main feature of companies that seek to achieve success is social sensitivity, which is manifested by a series of actions aimed at meeting the expectations of employees.
  • Kogut-Jaworska, Magdalena (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper explores the role of regional policy in strengthening the EU’s research and innovation policy paradigm, with a particular focus on smart specializations. These specializations play a major role in stimulating R&I at the regional level in less-developed regions of the EU. Smart specialization is the EU’s new concept for the regions; it assumes improvement in both innovation and competitiveness, based on endogenic potential; in particular, in already existing branches of the economy. Smart specializations should, by definition, concentrate economic resources on chosen priorities; one of these priorities is the growth of the blue economy. Smart specializations need to be clearly defined, only then can they contribute to economic growth when combined with proper management of public financial means. The objective of this paper is to introduce and characterize the assumptions for smart specializations and to assess the progress of their implementation and the necessary conditions required in Polish regions; particularly when referring to sectors of the blue economy.
  • Lubińska, Natalia (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents trade between China and Europe along the historical Silk Road, based on the materials from the Warsaw press published in the second half of the 19th century. The 19th century was a period of intense military actions led by the European empires in the Far East. The defeat of the Qing Dynasty during the Opium Wars marked the so-called cutting of the “Chinese cake” and the gradual fall of the empire. The events of this period caused an increased interest in the subject of the Middle Kingdom among Europeans and also in the Polish press.

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