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  • Pawlak, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents the characteristics of the new generation of light sources – LEDs; these sources generate white light with various spectral distribution that could pose a potential hazard to people’s sight. The impact of electric light sources on human health, divided into ultraviolet radiation hazard, infra-red radiation hazard and visible radiation hazard – taking into account the so-called AMD (age-related macular degeneration), has been discussed in this paper and the laws on photobiological safety have been presented. The New Approach Directive and a related harmonized standard, which is the fundamental document relating to the evaluation of photobiological hazard, have been specified; related documents established in Poland have also been presented. Based on the results of the author’s research and a review of the literature, the paper ultimately concludes that LED sources (both individual ones and modules) are safe for the user in terms of photobiological safety, as long as they are used as intended.
  • Fiskin, Cemile Solak; Cerit, Ayşe Güldem (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents a bibliometric analysis of maritime transport/shipping-related publications between 1975 and November 2018 in order to describe the profile and research themes. Comprehensive queries were used to reveal the general structure of maritime transport/shipping-related literature in the context of the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-Expanded) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) databases. The analysis was conducted using bibliometric mapping. Five years of maritime/shipping literature was also comparatively presented. The results indicated major research areas, leading authors, countries, organizations, journals, and publications with the contributions of the comments of leading authors. Within the five-year period, maritime surveillance research and marine engineering research clusters were identified as developing clusters that expanded and received increased interest. Economic studies decreased, while operations research increased in the maritime transport/shipping literature. Optimization research and marine engineering research appear to be growing research clusters. Interdisciplinary research appears to have a high chance of being published in SCI-Expanded and SSCI in the future. The main contribution of this paper was the identification of areas of current research interests which allowed the quantification and visualization of changes in the entire body of shipping literature over a short time period.
  • Jasionowski, Robert (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, It is my great pleasure to present to you the latest issue of the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University in Szczecin in a new graphical layout which will be used in the forthcoming 10 issues. This issue, No. 60 (132), is the last one of this year, so I would like to use my position as Editor-in-Chief to briefly summarise the current year. In 2019, the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University in Szczecin published 69 scientific papers prepared by 129 authors (in total, without republishing). Among them, 19.37% of authors had a foreign affiliation, and the greatest contribution came from Nigerian researchers, with 6 authors. We also received contributions from 5 Ukrainian authors, 4 Croatian authors, and 4 scientists from Iran. In addition, I would like to inform you that on 9 October 2019, the Scientific Journals Evaluation Team of Index Copernicus International delivered the assessment of our quarterly according to the ICV indicator – the Index Copernicus Value. The Index Copernicus International Team evaluates scientific journals from all over the world. Journals are then included in the ICI Journals Master List database. The scientific journals are reviewed in two categories: 1 – the quality of the journal, which includes: editorial standards, publishing frequency and regularity, online availability, and internationalisation; 2 – analysis of citation trends of the journal based on the ISI Web of Science and Scopus. The Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin generated a ICV score of 99.59 for 2018, which was slightly lower than the 2017 value of 100 ICV. It should be stated that this is still a strong result because a score above 100 ICV can usually be obtained by journals with current IF and SJR indices. This issue of the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University in Szczecin presents results of twenty-seven research papers in five sections: Civil Engineering and Transport, Environmental Engineering, Mining and Energy, Management and Quality Studies, Mechanical Engineering, and Miscellaneous. The Civil Engineering and Transport section, includes eight papers which are mainly devoted to the issues of transport, including maritime, inland, rail, or motor vehicle. The authors discussed the economic, social, safety, and ecological aspects of particular modes of transportation and also presented new solutions with possible future applications. The Environmental Engineering, Mining, and Energy section, features two articles. Both papers showcase problems with environmental protection. The first article outlines the development of pro-ecological investments in Poland from 2014–2020, including an analysis of investment risks. The authors of the second paper present the results of research on the application of new mathematical models in cheaper devices capable of measuring PM10 concentrations. 6 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin 60 (132) The Management and Quality Studies section contains ten articles. The authors discuss issues related to managing methods of transport for better economic results, the impact of e-commerce on transport development and the economy, and recent innovations in e-commerce. There is also research on social issues related to managing the operations of a seaport and individual workers. The Mechanical Engineering section contains four articles. The authors of the first paper discuss ideas related to the determination of steam injector operating parameters for different drive steam parameters. The next article is devoted to the reliability and availability of fire alarm systems on ships. The third paper presents an analysis of vertical shear forces and bending moments during nodule loading for a standard bulk carrier in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone. The last article in this thematic group describes the results of simulation-based and academic research on child safety seat suspension. The last section, Miscellaneous, contains three articles on very different topics. The first paper presents research on the properties of Annona Muricata and its possible future applications as a medicinal component. The second paper discusses the cooperation between China and Central Asian, Middle Eastern, African, and European countries. The third article discloses research results on the influence of intellectual property on the economic development of a country. Finally, I would like to take this opportunity to encourage authors from all over the world to publish their articles in our scientific journal – the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin. Readers are welcome to visit our website, http://scientific-journals.eu/, where they may access the online version of the current issue as well as archival issues.
  • Abramowicz-Gerigk, Teresa; Burciu, Zbigniew; Jachowski, Jacek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Low controllability under strong winds presents a problem for the operation of inland vessels, which can be improved using passive bow rudders and transverse thrusters. Bow thrusters can sufficiently improve the manoeuvrability at low speeds, but an unsolved problem is course maintaining and yaw checking of a vessel at medium and high speeds. This paper proposes the use of a bow steering system in which the bow rotors generate a Magnus force. The first physical test model of the system showed promising results and that much more research must be performed before this system can be used in industrial applications. The paper presents the results of a numerical study on the flow field generated by bow rotors. The first stage of a ship’s turn using the bow rotors was used to determine the dependence of the expected steering force on the inflow velocity and rotational speed of the rotors. The influence of the flow generated by the bow steering system on river banks and quay walls during manoeuvres was also discussed.
  • Dąbrowski, Paweł S.; Specht, Cezary; Koc, Władysław; Wilk, Andrzej; Czaplewski, Krzysztof; Karwowski, Krzysztof; Specht, Mariusz; Chrostowski, Piotr; Szmagliński, Jacek; Grulkowski, Sławomir (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Determining the course of a railway track axis using satellite methods relies on ensuring the precise assembly of GNSS receivers in dedicated measuring devices. Depending on the number of receivers, solutions that are based on placing the apparatus directly above the railway track axis (as well as in eccentric positions) are used to indirectly obtain data to form the basis of the desired results. This publication describes the installation of five GNSS receivers on a mobile measuring platform as part of the InnoSatTrack project. The methodology and the procedure of the geodetic measurements required to obtain the geometrical configuration of the measuring apparatus, specified in the technical project, are presented. The publication presents the principles of total station measurement methods as well as the steps taken to achieve precise results from staking out. The process of acquiring the same configuration of the GNSS receivers, based on the geometry of the squares on the two measuring platforms that were used in the research, has been shown. The final determination of the position of the receivers did not exceed an error of 0.010 m with an average error of 0.003 m, despite the occurrence of mounting difficulties. The results have demonstrated the high credibility and effectiveness of the presented solution.
  • Gerigk, Mateusz; Jachowski, Jacek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents an approach for providing innovative technology by applying fluid mechanics to the field of architectural design. The aim is to make a building’s shape profitable and strengthen environmental protection by using the wind force to create an integrated wind absorption definition for a multifunctional building system model. Furthermore, taking control of the wind flow over an object can have an impact on not only the designed object itself but also on its surroundings. In modern coastal cities there are issues associated with the wind and ventilation that need to be solved. The presented system model and the calculations conducted are part of the new definition of a multifunctional object and the wind force as a significant subsystem. Systematizing this scope can be useful in design practice.
  • Jurecki, Rafał S. (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents the legal requirements for shock absorbers in suspension, for a vehicle in which they are mounted to be allowed on Polish roads. A short description of the working methodology of the device used to determine the effectiveness of a shock absorber’s damping (sometimes referred to as relative wheel adhesion) is given on the basis of the Eusama method. The method of carrying out the tests on a sample of five passenger cars are described, along with the tests carried out at different temperatures for shock absorbers installed in a suspension system. The results of the diagnostic tests of the shock absorbers carried out on a diagnostic stand, in accordance with the Eusama method, are presented. The results confirm that the ambient conditions – the temperature of the chassis components (including the shock absorbers) – only slightly influence the values of their damping efficiency.
  • Kotowska, Izabela (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Transport is a considerable source of pollution in cities. The social impacts of transport activities result from emissions of pollutants, greenhouse gases, and noise, as well as traffic accidents. Not every urban investment that reduces such ‘external’ effects of transport will be found acceptable by the public. In order to assess and communicate the social impacts of investments, it is necessary to calculate external costs appropriately. This article discusses issues with estimating the social costs and benefits of transport-related investments in cities. The article also provides a classification of social benefits from urban transport investments and proposes a general methodology for estimating such benefits. Due to the versatility of urban investments, there can be no single, universal method. The article proposes methods for analysing social costs and benefits on the basis of two sample urban investments.
  • Maruszczak, Marianna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents the activities of the European Union (EU) and Poland to develop inland waterways as an environmentally-friendly transport method. The paper presents positive aspects of transferring part of the load from other methods of transport, such as railways or cars, to inland vessels. It shows the level of development of inland navigation in the EU and indicates favorable natural conditions for doing so. The article addresses the issues of the insufficient state of waterway infrastructure in Poland and presents measures to improve it. It also identifies the main EU and government programs seeking to standardize a common transport space of the EU by developing inland navigation.
  • Popik, Adrian; Zaniewicz, Grzegorz; Wawrzyniak, Natalia (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Video surveillance on both marine and inland waters still only plays a mainly auxiliary role in vessel traffic observation and management. The newest technical achievements in visual systems allow camera images to be used in more sophisticated tasks, such as automatic vessel recognition and identification in observed areas. With the use of deep learning algorithms and other artificial intelligence methods, such as rough sets and fuzzy sets, new functions can be designed and implemented in monitoring systems. In this paper the challenges that were encountered and the technology that has been developed in managing video streams are presented as well as the images needed for tests and proper operation of the designed Ship Recognition and Identification System (SHREC). The current technologies, typical setups and capabilities of cameras, with regard to existing on-water video monitoring systems, are also presented. The aspects of collecting the test data in the Szczecin Water Junction area are also described. The main part of the article focuses on presenting the video data pre-processing, storing and managing procedures that have been developed for the purposes of the SHREC system.
  • Szelangiewicz, Tadeusz; Żelazny, Katarzyna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents regression formulas for calculating the friction resistance RF and the total resistance RT of ship models in the 2.0–10.0 m range. The method for calculating the total resistance is novel and applies to the design models of an unmanned surface vessel (USV) for experimental testing of autonomous control. For both regression models (RF and RT), statistical and substantive tests were performed (the results of the calculations were compared with the experimental measurements). In both cases, convincing results were obtained, which have confirmed the possibility of their use at the preliminary design stage of unmanned ship models.
  • Gwizdała, Jerzy Piotr; Kędzierska-Szczepaniak, Angelika (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Environmental protection has increasingly adopted economic dimensions, and the environment is treated as a “capital” that can be used for economic and social development. This capital must be preserved for future generations, which is why increasing attention has been paid to taking pro-ecological actions to protect the environment. In order to improve the quality of the environment, it is necessary to make various types of investments in it. The Sustainable Development Initiative assumes that the economic growth of countries should be implemented in a manner consistent with the natural conditions of nature. The aim of this study was to identify and present the current possibilities of financing sustainability in Poland after joining the European Union, taking into account the risk of undertaking such an investment.
  • Owczarek, Tomasz; Rogulski, Mariusz; Czechowski, Piotr O. (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This study presents an assessment of the equivalence of measurements of particulate matter PM10 concentrations using a low-cost electronic device as compared to the reference method. Data for the study were collected in accordance with the guidelines for research equivalence of the two devices operating in parallel. On this basis, a model correcting raw measurement results was developed. The best results were obtained for the model having the form of a second degree polynomial and taking into account air temperature. Corrected measurement results were used in the equivalence testing procedure. As a result, confirmation of equivalence was obtained for the vast majority of data sets generated from original measurements. This confirms the usefulness of the device as a tool for monitoring air quality.
  • Czaja-Cieszyńska, Hanna; Kochański, Konrad (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The RESPECT Index (RI) is the first index of socially responsible companies in Central and Eastern Europe and has been operating in Poland since 2009. In accordance with its philosophy, the RI includes listed companies showing the highest standards of quality in corporate governance and information governance regarding their impacts on the natural environment, society, and employees. Do the non-financial reports of these companies confirm that they meet these standards? This article attempts to answer that question, which aim can also be described as the qualitative assessment of the non-financial reports of the largest listed Polish companies in the RESPECT Index, with particular emphasis on analyzing the structure and content of the companies’ non-financial information disclosures. In order to achieve this goal, the paper first defines non-financial information and its usefulness to stakeholders in modern enterprises. Secondly, the paper discusses problematic aspects of non-financial reporting. And the third part of the paper is a qualitative analysis of the non-financial reports of 12 out of the 31 Polish companies in the RESPECT Index. Finally conclusions are that the research conducted confirmed a wide variety of these companies’ disclosures, and on the other hand, exposed some deficiencies in published reports, including their narrative character, limited comparability across time and space, and lack of external verification. All this shows that it is not enough to be a socially responsible company; you must also report this activity skillfully. This study used the following research methods: literature review, analysis of legal regulations, desk research, and inductive and synthetic reasoning strategies, in order to formulate conclusions.
  • Dębicka, Olga; Gutowski, Tomasz; Borodo, Adam (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Development and innovation in the e-commerce sector over the last decade have been extremely dynamic. Market development has increasingly been driven by the changing behaviour of consumers shopping online and the growing number of e-stores. This article identifies the pro-innovation areas and actions which are creating special value propositions for e-buyers in Poland and assesses their impact on shopping decisions for each generation (X, Y, and baby boomers) by assessing the impacts of differences in the preferences of the generations regarding e-commerce. Each generation differs significantly from the others in terms of work, education, security, success in professional and personal life, and in terms of consumption. The characteristics of the individual generations and the levels of their digital competencies impact significantly on the ways in which a given generation makes purchases and what they expect during the purchasing process. In order to establish the key determinants of online purchasing decisions and attitudes towards innovation in e-commerce, an online survey was conducted. The sample included three generations of Polish internet users: 260 people at ages between 25 and 37 (generation Y); 200 people at ages between 38 and 50 (generation X) and 100 people at ages between 51 and 70 (the baby boomers’ generation). The structure of the article includes presentations of the problem against the background of relevant literature, the theoretical assumptions of the research, and its findings and conclusions.

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