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  • Zhou, Yang; Daamen, Winnie; Vellinga, Tiedo; Hoogendoorn, Serge (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    behavior. The analysis of AIS data provides a possibility to recognize vessel behavior patterns in a waterway area. Furthermore, AIS data can be used to classify vessel behavior into several categories. The analysis results would help the port authority and other equivalent parties in port design and optimization or marine traffic management. For researchers, it provides a systematic way to understand, simulate and predict vessel behavior. This paper focuses on vessel classification in the Botlek area, Rotterdam from the perspective of vessel behavior. In this paper, the vessel properties, including vessel type, GT (Gross Tonnage), length and beam, have been analyzed to investigate the vessel behavior, which is described by four factors including heading, COG (Course over Ground), SOG (Speed over Ground), and position. In order to discover the behavior patterns in normal situations, several thresholds are set in order to filter the collected AIS data to define such situations. By plotting the AIS data, behavioral changes with the changes of properties have been observed. Hence, the correlations between vessel behavior and different vessel properties are investigated. The results reveal that a vessel’s sailing position and COG are both strongly determined by beam, while SOG is affected by GT. For the heading of a vessel, no obvious correlation with any vessel property is found. Each behavioral factor is clustered according to the correlated vessel property. This way, the criteria to classify the vessels are determined. The vessel classification results based on their behavior would likely to lead to more consistency in the analysis, simulation and prediction of the vessel behavior. The reason is that the development of such a simulation model is based on a systematic recognition of the vessel behavior patterns.
  • Rawson, Andrew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The development of offshore renewable energy installations can introduce additional hazards to the safe navigation of shipping in often already crowded waterways. Developers and decision makers must predict and properly manage the potential risks imposed on navigating vessels from wind farm developments, in a complex and uncertain environment. Considerable analysis has been undertaken to model navigational risks to vessel traffic around wind farms; however this work is generally predictive and there is little understanding as to whether the modelling, central to the consideration of navigation safety, accurately reflects the postconstructed navigation risks. It is therefore important for decision makers to understand the uncertainties present in the analysis, both in terms of the assessment of risk and the implementation of any risk reduction measures. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the change in vessel traffic in the Thames Estuary before and after the construction of five offshore wind farms. The analysis demonstrates how the impact on vessel traffic is specific to the location of each development, driven by traffic management measures and other local constraints. Therefore the accurate modelling of this impact requires the input of experienced navigators, regulators and other knowledgeable stakeholders. The results of this analysis can be used to improve the predictive modelling of vessel traffic around offshore wind farms and other offshore installations, leading to a reduction in the uncertainty of vessel traffic modelling in the future.
  • Stateczny, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The introduction of Automatic Identification System (AIS) was a great step to improve maritime safety. It was an extra source of navigational data in addition to radar. The problems of radar and AIS navigational data fusion are descussed in this article.
  • Łusznikow, Eugeniusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The mathematical description of accuracy as the basic criterion of the safety at СРА with the use of a radar and AIS is presented. The accuracy of a radar and that of an AIS in the mode of coordinates relayed from GPS and DGPS is compared. It is proved that within the limits of an observation zone and a zone of maneuvering the AIS is always more effective, than the radar, while and the radar is more effective in a zone of excessive approach on condition that the AIS uses the GPS.
  • Banyś, Paweł; Heymann, Frank; Noack, Thoralf (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is widely used for reporting vessel movements and broadcasting additional information related to the current voyage or constant parameters like the IMO number or the overall dimension of the hull. Since dynamic AIS data is shared mostly without human interaction, and is not flawless, the static AIS content edited manually is vulnerable to human error. This work introduces a simple vessel motion pattern approach that determines the probable foredeck/afterdeck location of the GNSS reference used by the AIS transponder, and compares it to the hull parameters obtained from the static AIS data, to find observable errors in the static AIS configuration of the mount point of the GNSS reference antenna.
  • Boć, Renata; Gucma, Lucjan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The ecological protection of the Baltic Sea against extremely noxious pollution by chemical substances is one of the major issues faced by the states that are located on its shore. In this article, the transport of chemicals in bulk has been analysed. An attempt has been made at grouping dangerous chemical substances based on their negative impact on the environment. Databases that were available have been studied with respect to various chemicals transported in the seaports of Szczecin and Świnoujście. Based on the data available, an attempt at analysing the traffic of tankers carrying noxious chemical substances has been taken up.
  • Dakus, Daniel; Zacniewski, Artur (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents the implementation of an Internet application that graphically depicts the current situation at sea, with the prospect of being used in maritime applications and the possibility to work on multiple hardware platforms. Modern techniques have been applied in order to allow permanent development of the application and ensure that it is maintenance-free and self-reliant, even in case of unexpected situations. This publication covers the procedure followed to build the application as well as its field and method of operation. Possible usages of the application and tests carried out on many platforms have been presented. Ideas for further development have also been introduced.
  • Jaskólski, Krzysztof (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Due to safety reasons, the movement of a ship in coastal areas should be monitored, tracked, recorded, and stored. The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a suitable tool to use in performing these functions. The probability limit for the AIS dynamic data availability can be limited by the lack of a Global Position System (GPS) signal, heading (HDG), and rate of turn (ROT) data in the position report. The unavailability of a data link is an additional limitation. To fill this gap, it is possible to attach the discrete Kalman filter (KF) for the position and course estimation. Coordinate estimation in the absence of a transmission link can improve the quality of the AIS service at Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) stations. This paper has presented the Kalman filtering algorithm to improve the possibilities for ship motion tracking and monitoring in the TSS (Traffic Separation Scheme) and fairways area. More than 570 iterations were calculated and the results have been presented in figures to familiarize the reader with the operating principle of the Kalman filter algorithm.

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