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Browsing by Author Chłopińska, Ewelina:

  • Chłopińska, Ewelina (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents an alternative solution for marine units operating both inside and outside areas covered by strict controls on sulphur emissions. Emission Control Areas include the waters of the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the English Channel, and the coasts of North America. Shipping in these areas is obliged to use fuel with a sulphur content in accordance with European Parliament and Council Directive 2012/33/EU. The technology to power units with marine diesel oil and other fuels compliant with the requirements of the Sulphur Directive is described. Low-sulphur fuel is efficient and environmentally friendly, and liquefied natural gas (LNG fuel) is an example of the technology described.
  • Chłopińska, Ewelina; Gucma, Maciej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The proximity of the sea has a strategic importance for Poland’s security and economy. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) may play an important role in the Baltic Sea Region in the near future – it may create opportunities for dynamic international economic cooperation for Baltic countries. Access to the Baltic Sea enables sustainable development consisting of the comprehensive exploitation of the country’s maritime potential, i.e.: the broad development of the maritime economy. In this paper the authors have given an overview of the benefits of a LNG terminal located in Świnoujście. Building a facility is a strategic investment that requires the involvement of all stakeholders at the local, regional, and national level. In this paper the authors have presented general information on the collection and transmission of natural gas. The aspects of trends in the LNG market have been discussed. Market conditions in the world and in Europe, concerning the investment in the Świnoujście LNG terminal, have been described. The implementation of the strategy has been aimed at supporting the pursuit of long-term development agreements integrating the maritime sectors with the other related sectors. The directions of gas distribution arising from the rational use of the LNG terminal in Świnoujście have also been presented. In addition, the economic impact of the location of the LNG terminal in Świnoujście on the development of the gas market in Poland was analyzed.
  • Chłopińska, Ewelina; Tatesiuk, Jakub; Śnieg, Jakub (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Environmental pollution is a growing concern for many organizations, commissions, state governments, and companies. The use of fossil fuels in transportation contributes significantly to increased emissions of harmful sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Maritime transport, as one of the largest emitters of such harmful compounds, has encountered many emission restrictions and legal limitations. These include the creation of areas of strict exhaust gas control (ECA). According to the MARPOL Convention, Annex VI, Special Emission Control Areas have been in force since 01.01.2015, and they include the following areas: the Baltic Sea, North Sea, North America (covering the designated coasts of the USA and Canada and portions of the Caribbean Sea near the USA). According to current regulations, vessels providing services in ECAs are required to maintain sulphur oxide emissions that do not exceed 0.1%. The introduction of new regulations results in costs that have to be covered by shipowners. To meet these standards, the two most popular methods are the use of special flushing systems (scrubbers) and low-sulphur fuels (e.g., LNG). This publication addresses the use of LNG as fuel for the main propulsion of sea-going vessels operating in areas covered by strict sulphur emission controls. It also presents LNG demand forecasts for various ship types, as well as possible solutions satisfying the Sulphur Directive. The purpose of this paper is to present a way to determine the size of the global demand for LNG. The percentage of vessels powered by LNG and other fuels was used as a basis for estimating global LNG demand in shipping until 2030.

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