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Browsing by Author Wiśniewski, Bernard: 07 Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Morskiej

  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Warzok, Paweł (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    W artykule przeanalizowano najnowsze dane dotyczące zimowego przejścia przez Zatokę Św. Wawrzyńca. W zależności od warunków lodowych podane są różne warianty podejścia do Quebec, oraz charakterystyka warunków hydrometeorologicznych na przejściu.

Other publications

  • Medyna, Piotr; Wiśniewski, Bernard; Kamionkowski, Paweł (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Tropical cyclones tracks on the North Atlantic basin were categorized (years 1989–2009). Standard environmental patterns were used. Authors took into consideration cyclones motion parameters and their changes. Recurving, left-turning, nonrecurving, looping and erratic tracks were describe
  • Medyna, Piotr; Wiśniewski, Bernard; Chomski, Jarosław (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2010)
    This article compares routes of a ship avoiding a tropical cyclone calculated by various methods. The calculations were done in the environment of evolutionary algorithms based on systematically received forecasts. The computational algorithms made use of the 1-2-3 rule, anti-collision plot, and the storm field defined as the cyclone fuzzy domain. The results have been compared with post factum analysis utilizing exclusively the full scope of weather analyses for the relevant moments of the voyage
  • Medyna, Piotr; Wiśniewski, Bernard; Chomski, Jarosław (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2010)
    The authors describe methods of presenting seasonal information on the occurrence of cyclones (typical tracks shown on Routing Charts, climatic routes and areas of cyclone formation according to NOAA). Besides, a spatial presentation of weather situations including cyclone tracks and the stages of their development understood as intensities are proposed. The relevant zones have been determined on the basis of cyclone data from 1998–2007. The zones indicate areas of potential tropical disturbances on the ocean, thus depicting the areas of the most probable cyclone threats
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Kaczmarek, Paweł (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2010)
    This paper presents the methodology of constructing a collision avoidance plot “ship – tropical cyclone”. The computational algorithm and its testing results are presented. The tests make use of information from the voyage of the ship “Diana” and weather reports and forecasts on the real tropical cyclone Bill, which moved in August 2009 across the North Atlantic
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Siódmiak, Szymon (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    One of the essential issues in the multi-criteria process of voyage planning is the safety of personnel, cargo and the ship itself, accounting for the optimized voyage time and costs. Apart from sometimes difficult weather and navigational conditions, pirates have been a new major threat to the safety of navigation since the beginning of this century. It is because of piracy, traditional routes of vessels differ from seasonal ones, and their threat is taken into consideration in decisions concerning the choice of the sea route of a ship. This article indicates the most dangerous routes in terms of pirate attacks occurrence over the last few years in the Indian Ocean. An attempt is made to relate the number of pirate attacks to hydrometeorological conditions and to define the effect of pirates activities on the problems of choosing the vessel sea route
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Wolski, Tomasz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The paper presents the influence of the tsunami on the safety of the shipping and seaports. The analysis based on the tsunami from 11 March 2011 on Japanese islands and coasts of Pacific. The paper describes the destruction caused by tsunami waves, both in port and coastal infrastructure. A list of casualties in dry bulk vessels and boats in Japan and in the U.S. coastis presented. Recommendations for ships with the warnings and messages before the tsunami are identifie
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    W artykule zaprezentowano łączne oddziaływanie falowania i wiatru na prędkość statku. Teoretycznie wydzielono wpływ wiatru na statek, uwzględniając odpowiednie prędkości i kierunki wiatru. Większy wpływ na ogólne straty prędkości statku przypisano falowaniu. Określenie oddzielnego wpływu wiatru i falowania adoptowano do programu obliczeniowego SPOS
  • Medyna, Piotr; Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    This paper presents sources of weather information necessary and useful when programming the ship route. Particular attention was given for publicly accessible information. Available data was categorized by groups of validity. The localization and the structure of weather data such as resolution, coverage, limitations, forecast time, etc. were described. The principles of naming the files containing the selected weather data in GRIB (gridded binary) format were presente
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The methodologies, planning procedures and integrated seas and ocean routes’ programming are presented. In programming of the most convenient route current and forecasted weather conditions, criteria and restrictions, speed and fuel characteristics of ships on waves and wind, computational methods and algo-rithms, navigation aids generating a route recommendation penetrate themselves. These elements when properly identified and adopted allow the master for effective ship’s course and speed decision making
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Kaczmarek, Paweł (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Cyclones are an important limitation in the ships’ route programming. “Jawor” ship voyage from Italy do the U.S. (Baltimore) was an example where “Cyclone” program was used for effective avoidance of “Julia” and “Igor” cyclones in September 2010
  • Wielgosz, Mirosław; Wiśniewski, Bernard; Korwin-Piotrowski, Tadeusz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Since 2009 the Polish Steamship Company has operating on its ships SPOS, which main function is receiving weather information, presentations of this information in the form of synoptic and wave maps with forecasts up to 216 hours. The second function of the system is ability to determine the Great Circle, rhumb line and navigation composite routes and the so-called optimal and recommended by the system route (Optimum High and Wide). Because for each of these routes it is possible to generate in advance ship’s position for one, two, three days and so on until the destination (usually the roadstead of the destination port), it is likely to compare the various routes. SPOS compares distances (NM), duration of voyages (days and hours), expected average speed, as well as date and time ship reaches the destination (ETA – Estimated Time of Arrival). The reliability of these data is dependent on the ship’s characteristics as a control object or ability to obtain the calm water speed (Vo) at full sea speed propeller revolutions, and reduction of vessel speed due to waves and wind. The third element affecting accuracy of a voyage plan in terms of initial estimations is the reliability of weather forecasts (waves, wind, currents, ice restrictions, fog, etc.)
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Wolski, Tomasz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The paper presents an analysis of the tsunami arrival time as a result of the earthquake on 11.03.2011 on the Pacific Ocean. For 91 ports arranged along coasts of Pacific, one counted theoretical arrival times of the tsunami and compared it with data real noted on water level gauges of West Coast / Alaska Tsunami Warning Center. Change of the coefficient in the formula for the wave arrival time from 5.0 to 4.72 as the average factor for the ports lying directly on the open ocean waters was proposed. This is of practical importance for the possible procedures to improve forecasting and warning system for tsunami, which are important in maintaining the safety of navigation in the coastal zone of the ocean
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Wolski, Tomasz; Giza, Andrzej (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    Reference system was adapted EVRS (European Vertical Reference System), which is based on the level of NAP (Normal Amsterdam Peil) for the spatial imaging extreme levels of the Baltic Sea. The observational data on sea levels have been converted of the selected 38 stations in each of the Baltic countries to the level of NAP (Normal Amsterdam Peil). The images of the Baltic Sea area were obtained in a uniform reference system, for the example of chosen stormy situation of 1–2 November 2006, and the spatial distribution of the maximum and no maximum sea levels that occurred during the 1960–2010 year.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Gibuła, Marek; Piotrowski, Tadeusz; Wolski, Tomasz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    The article deals with the problem of ship’s ocean route programming. For masters during planning the ocean most convenient route lots of factors are very important such as among others: current, forecast weather, criteria and restriction, speed and fuel characteristic of ships on waves and wind and so on. These elements when are properly identify and adopted allow the master for making an effective ship’s course and speed decision. The aim of research is to show how the SPOS system is treated during the ocean’s ship route. 39 captains of PŻM ships during the year of 2014 answered on 9 questions of questionnaire which were concerned the degree of utilization of SPOS (Ship Performance Optimization System) during the operation of their ships. All the masters confirmed that they use of SPOS system as a browser weather, while only 25.6% of masters confirmed that they also use the SPOS system as a tool in planning the route. They also repeatedly pointed out, however, that SPOS has some of limitations such as not limited information about ice cover or tropical cyclones, etc. In conclusion, it can be assess that the SPOS system is satisfactorily used on ships as a browser forecast, but does not work well in planning the trip by navigators.
  • Szelangiewicz, Tadeusz; Żelazny, Katarzyna; Wiśniewski, Bernard; Żelazny, Katarzyna (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    To forecast the optimum route passage of a vessel in the real weather conditions using the so-called velocity characteristics of the ship. These are developed in the way, as to have a very simple form, which can not guarantee high precision in calculating the speed of the vessel. The paper presents a mathematical model of the external forces operating in the vessel and the algorithm to solve this model for calculating the instantaneous speed of the vessel in the selected weather conditions. Made of a computer program, after appropriate research and testing, can be used to optimize the transport route of the ship.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Kaczmarek, Paweł (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents the methodology of construct ship tropical cyclone . The computational algorithm and its testing results are presented. The tests make use of information from the voyage of the ship Diana and weather reports and forecasts on the real tropical cyclone Bill, which moved in August 2009 across the North Atlantic.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The analisys of navigational and weather restrictions for vessels navigating to the port of Svea has been made.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Medyna, Piotr; Chomski, Jarosław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The most beneficial ship’s route calculations on the ocean are presented, taking in-to consideration tropical cyclone avoidance. Tests were made for the m/v “Daszynski” voyage using real weather data during 26.IX.04 - 06.X.04, when the North Atlantic was haunted by the tropical cyclons “Jeanne” and “Lisa”. A computational program based on evolutional algorithms was used.
  • Medyna, Piotr; Chomski, Jarosław; Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    A route estimation indicator as a tool for ship route evaluation aimed at avoiding a tropical cyclone is proposed. The time of voyage, navigational indicator and time of ship presence in the cyclone vicinity included in this indicator are taken into consideration.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Medyna, Piotr (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper describes a tropical cyclone storm field range (winds exceeding 34 knots) as a tropical cyclone fuzzy domain, giving an example of 36H prognosis for the North Atlantic.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Drozd, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents the ship weather routeing problem as a decision-making of ship route selection in fuzzy conditions. An attempt was made to set forth a formal defi-nition of fuzzy environment elements: fuzzy goals, constraints and decisions. The con-sidered problem was classified as a problem of decision made by one person, in one stage of decision procedure and as multi-criterion problem.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article deals with the problem of ship ocean route programming. Methods of computing minimum-time routes and examples of route recommendations by the Polish Steamship Company land-based center are presented
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Increasing accuracy of weather forecasts for ocean areas (wave factors, limits of ice), development of communication means, receiving and computations of navigational and weather information (satellite communication, computer programming) as well as development of theoretical basics of optimization and decision making process permit operational computations of optimal routes for ships on the oceans. Using dynamical programming, route selection is made objectively, taking into account dynamical changing weather conditions, ship characteristics and assumed optimization criteria. For computations different types of algorithms may be used: from graph theory, evolutionary algorithms based on genetic algorithms as well as isochrone ones. Following an example of results of ships voyages recommended by Polish Steamship Company routing centre, 3% of time voyage saving in comparison with seasonal voyages were obtained.
  • Walczak, Aleksander; Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Ważnym elementem współczesnej żeglugi jest właściwa ocena sytuacji hydrometeorologicznej. Znajomość jej pozwala na wybranie optymalnej, bezpiecznej tezy przy przyjęciu założonych kryteriów. Opierając się na literaturze zawodowej oraz badaniach własnych na statkach PMH typu "Kolejarz", w opracowaniu przedstawiono wpływ wiatru, falowania,oraz prądu wiatrowego na wielkość dryfu i zmianę prędkości statku. Z przeprowadzonej dyskusji i uzyskanych wyników przedstawiono określone zalecenia 1 wnioski do praktycznej działalności nawigacyjnej dla statków o nośności od 5 do 20 tys. DWT.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Omówione straty prędkości statku w zależności od wiatru i fali. Dla 3 statków masowych różnej wielkości dokonano obliczeń w oparciu o teoretyczną metodę energetyczną F.J. Rudiajawa. Główną zaletą przedstawionych wyników jest możliwość oddzielnego obliczania wpływu wiatru i falowania na straty prędkości statku.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Grzelak, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    W trakcie eksploatacji statku typu B-438 dokonano rejestracji jego kołysań w wybranych warunkach falowania i wiatru. Opracowano metodykę pomiarów i dokonano interpretacji zapisów. Analiza wyników pomiarów umożliwiła odtworzenie zachowania się statku w dowolnym momencie pomiar oraz ilościowego określenia przechyłów bocznych i wzdłużnych w zależności od parametrów fali i wiatru, prędkość statku oraz stopnia jego załadowania.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Kaźmierski, Wojciech (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Omówiono przyczyny wymuszonych strat prędkości statku na fali i wietrze. Określano bezpieczne prędkości statku z uwagi na eleming zalewania na przykłądzie statku typu B-447
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Przedstawiono rozszerzoną metodykę oblizeń i wyniki 46 podróży semikontenerowców typu B-438 na Północnym Atlantyku w okresie październik 1976 - kwiecień 1977 r. Analiza tras zamierzonych przez kapitana /Z/ wzbogaca ocenę tras poprzez obliczenia współczynników wydłużenia tras / /. Porównanie czasów trwania rejsu obliczonych wg różnych źródeł /RZ, RZt, RZt/w/ pozwala sprawdzić przyjętą charakterystykę prędkościową statku i ocenić wykonywane na statku obserwacje wysokości fal.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Przeprowadzono odbiór map faksymilowych odbironikiem JAX - 27A przy użyciu różnych wariantów anten Radio Szczecin i Instytutu Nawigacji Morskiej WSM stosując różne współpracujące odbiorniki komunikacyjne. Analiza odebranych map wskazuje na dostateczną ilość i jakość odebranej informacji pogodowej z akwenu Oceanu Atlantyckiego dla celów opracowania rekomendacji dla statków PMH.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    W oparciu o metodę izochron i program wyznaczania optymalnej trasy oceanicznej przedstawiono szczegółową analizę podróży statku po jej realizacji. Dysponując prognozowanymi warunkami pogodowymi i warunkami pogodowymi, które faktycznie wystąpiły na oceanie dokonano porównania trasy rzeczywistej statku typu CON-RO w okresie 1982.11.25 - 1982.12.01. z trasami obliczanymi w oparciu o mapy prognoz /OBL/PROG/ i mapy analiz ?OBL/ANAL/. Wyniki badań potwierdzają celowość porównania drogi statku na podstawie map prognoz i analiz, aby po podróży wypracować poprawną jej ocene nawigacyjną i meteorologiczną.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Chomski, Jarosław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Podjęto próbę zastosowania zasad i metod teorii grafów dla programowania drogi statku. Przedstawiono algorytm obliczania najkrótszej drogi dla zadanego grafu skierowanego. Wykorzystanie metody zilustrowano przykładami graficznymi.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Szymański, Maciej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents the origin of Emission Control Area (ECA) zones, a timetable for their enforcement, criteria of their implementation and the principles and rules of navigation in these areas. Plans and areas of the next ECA zones envisaged for the future are presented. Least fuel route programming was presented, together with a description of safety rules during the change-over procedure in operations concerning the main engine and other ship systems. An attempt to identify the problems that may be encountered when programming the routes with the use of on-board routing systems, like Bon Voyage of AWT, leading through the ECA zones, has been made. Examples of such problems, taken from a true voyage of a postpanamx container vessel on a transpacific voyage, have been presented. A generalized algorithm for programming the route leading through the ECA zone according to the least fuel criterion has been presented.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Szymański, Maciej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    A significant increase in demand for navigation support systems called Onboard Routing Systems (ORS) can be observed in the World’s merchant fleet. ORS is a navigation-support system that enables route programming to warn of dangers and navigation constraints and determine the required route-safety level directly onboard the vessel. In this article, an attempt to analyze and compare two ORS systems has been made: the Ship Per- formance Optimization System (SPOS), by the Meteo Consult Group; and the Bon Voyage system by Applied Weather Technologies (AWT). Individual items, methods, and criteria of both systems for optimization and weather forecasting models utilized have been compared. Particular attention has been paid to the usefulness of the systems regarding the problem of identification and avoidance of hazards such as tropical cyclones and wave resonance. Ergonomics of both systems has also been compared.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Chomski, Jarosław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    W programowaniu tras statków na oceanach zaproponowano użycie algorytmów genetycznych. Rodzaj tych algorytmów i dokładność obliczeń zaletą od dostępnych danych pogodowych ora2 oprogramowania. Zbudowany program oparty jest na algorytmie ewolucyjnym wyznaczania minimalno-czasowej drogi statku. Rezultaty testów dowodzą, te poprzez zwiększanie populacji wejściowej motliwych tras, łącznego stosowania operacji mutacji i krzytowama tych tras oraz w miarę zwiększania ilości pokoleń uzyskuje się możliwość wybrania najkrótszej czasowo drogi statku na oceanie.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Chomski, Jarosław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Optymalizacja minimalno-czasowa drogi statku staje się ważnym kryterium ekonomicznym planowania podróży. Algorytmy komputerowe wykorzystują bieżącą informację pogodową wprowadzoną do komputera na podstawie odczytanych map faksymilowych. Autorzy przeanalizowali nową metodę wprowadzania danych, tak aby w dostatecznym stopniu odzwierciedlić warunki pogodowe, a jednocześnie umożliwić przeprowadzenie obliczeń w warunkach eksploatacyjnych statku.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Medyna, Piotr; Klein, Robert; Jakubowski, Marcin (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    W celu zwiększenia bezpieczeństwa podróży oraz uzyskania wymiernych korzyści ekonomicznych w planowaniu podróży nie jest wystarczające stosowanie jedynie map klimatycznych. Zarówno charakterystyka prędkościowa statku, jak i sposób uwzględniania danych klimatycznych wpływają na kształt tras optymalnych dla określonych warunków pogodowych. Autorzy podjęli próbę indywidualnego podejścia do problemu, uwzględniając różne typy statków.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Ocean route recommendations for some vessels of the Polish Steamship Company were prepared on the basis of digital hydrological and meteorological data and programs for determining time optimum routes. The isochrone method and the theory of graphs were used for route planning. As an example, a voyage of the m/v Pomorze Zachodnie is presented.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Określono współczynnik trudności podróży morskiej statku pod wzglądem pogodowym, w zależności od wysokości fali i jej kąta kursowego oraz czasu przebywania w warunkach sztormowych. Wykonano obliczenia dla wielu wariantów tras oceanicznych i zalecono praktykom wykorzystanie programu komputerowego oraz sposobu obliczeń dla celów planowania drogi statku.
  • Szymański, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The results of testing the Bon Voyage system for an ocean voyage are presented in this paper. The main assumptions of testing were: ETD – 26.08.2016 and ETA – 05.09.2016, as established by the owner. All the data have been obtained from an actual voyage of a post-Panamax shipping container through the North Pacific. Testing was repeated again after completion of the voyage (post-voyage analysis). The data indicate that improved results with respect to fuel consumption could have been achieved using a different moment of second stage testing. Possible problems at planning, programming, and optimizing of the route leading through the ECA (Emission Control Area) zones with the use of onboard routing systems are also presented.
  • Szymański, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    A ship sailing between the coasts of China, Japan, Korea and the Western coast of North America must cross navigational and geographical barriers of the Kuril Islands Archipelago and Aleutian Chain. Passes between the islands are particularly difficult and hazardous in winter. Most of them are covered by drifting ice for 5 months of the year. A number of allowed passes and offshore routes had been established by the maritime authorities of Alaska on the Bering Sea and in Aleutian Chain. However, use of other passes and routes is limited to exceptional cases only. Similar regulations exist in the Okhotsk Sea and other waters under Russian jurisdiction. The ship must then give grounds for a deviation from recommended or allowed passes and tracks and report other required information. Since January 1, 2015, it is mandatory to use the low sulphur fuel oil (sulphur content no higher than 0.01%) in the main propulsion system and auxiliary machinery when navigating inside the Emission Control Area (ECA) zone. Ships face a constant dilemma whether to remain in the ECA zone for the shortest or longer period of time, if the fuel and cost gain in relation to the entire route justify that. Available decision making support systems, like SPOS and Bon Voyage, do not solve that issue satisfactorily.

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