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Browsing by Author Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew: 25 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin

  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2011)
    A rapid development of information technologies opens increasingly wider opportunities for enhanced performance of all modes of transport, including carriage by sea. Such chances are offered by new and existing intelligent transport systems. The idea of creating a maritime intelligent transport system is convergent with the conception of e-navigation developed in recent years on the IMO forum. Navigational information systems, one component of the maritime intelligent transport system, support the process of ship conduct. We should expect that developments of these systems will be going towards decision support systems – intelligent navigational advisory systems. Apart from information functions, the tasks of these systems include hazard identification in ship movement (e.g. collision situations), warning against hazards and automatic generation of solutions (recommended manoeuvres). This article characterizes tasks of the maritime intelligent transport system and the place and functions of navigational decision support systems

Other publications

  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Wielgosz, Mirosław; Siemianowicz, Marek (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The ship domain – the area around the ship that should be clear of other vessels or objects – depends on many factors. In this paper authors present results of simulation research on ship domain determination. The influence of ship size on domain shape and dimensions in the restricted area have been analyzed. The method of determining ship domain is characterized. The results have been presented. The domains of ships of different sizes have been compared and conclusions formulate
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Magaj, Janusz; Chomski, Jarosław (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2008)
    The complexity of the navigation process and necessity of ensuring a possibly high level of safety, with continually growing vessel traffic intensity, ships’ tonnage and speeds developed at sea, call for research on navigational decision support systems. This article presents the assumptions and a model of such system design. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) has been used for system modelling. The UML allows presenting the designed system from various perspectives in a manner easily perceived by its future users as well as its creators: analysts, designers and programmers. The developed model provides a basis for building a prototype of the designed system of navigational decision support on the sea going vessel
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Magaj, Janusz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    Ship collisions belong to major hazards to the safety of navigation. This article presents a prototype navigational decision support system aimed at assisting the navigator in the process of ship conduct. The problem of choosing the right track in ship encounter situations and optimization criteria are considered. The authors present algorithms for the optimization of ship‟s route in collision situations, implemented in the navigational decision support system being developed. The description of the system operation intended to determine optimized ship movement trajectories is based on simulated ship encounters
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Borkowski, Piotr; Ochin, Evgeny; Dobryakova, Larisa (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The integration of seaports security subsystems aims at a development of the complex connection of local seaport security subsystems into a uniform overall security system. This requires the use of wire and wireless telecommunication infrastructure of the seaport territory, port basin and ships attributed to that port. These authors consider the application of cryptography and steganography in integration of seaports security subsystems
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Malujda, Rafał (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The correct analysis and assessment of navigational situation, taking into account the existing Collision Regulations, provides a basis for making the right decisions on a seagoing vessel. Such basis is important for ensuring the safety of navigation in different, often complex, situations. The interpretation of the relevant rules is therefore of key importance. They contain generalizations arising from a multitude of possible scenarios at sea. The consequence of this is imprecision hindering interpretation of the rules. This is of particular concern in the implementation of those rules in navigational information systems and decision support systems. This paper provides a preliminary analysis, based on practical examples, of the applicability of fuzzy logic as a tool for the algorithm-based interpretation of International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea (COLREGs). The COLREGs general concept shall be presented with an indication of the imprecision of rules in selected areas. For this purpose, the current methods of legal interpretation shall be presented and applied. This will allow to classify the COLREGs into two groups: crisp and imprecise. The real collision case shall be presented and discussed. The conducted preliminary considerations will help determine initially whether the incorporation of the principles of fuzzy logic in the law may facilitate interpretation of legal provisions by setting acceptable boundaries of such interpretation, and thus also the implementation of provisions in the navigational decision support systems
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Wołejsza, Piotr; Borkowski, Piotr (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    This article presents the NAVDEC, a navigational decision support system on a sea-going vessel. The system, developed at the Maritime University of Szczecin, is compared with other systems of this type worldwide. New functionalities of the NAVDEC are highlighted, as they may significantly contribute to the enhancement of navigational safety. As there has always been a growing interest in implementing research results into practical use, the authors describe their experience in transferring new technology to industry
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Wielgosz, Mirosław (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The ship domain is one of the criteria proposed for the safety of ships in restricted areas. Its shape is influenced by many factors. The paper presents the results of ship domain determination in a restricted area. The influence of ship speed on the shape and size of the domain was examined. The method of determining ship domain based on ship traces and partial domains was characterized. The results have been presented and conclusions formulate
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Magaj, Janusz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    This paper presents the problem of determining a safe ship trajectory in a restricted area. The route choice task is defined as a dynamic optimization problem. The route choice algorithm and criteria are presented and discussed. The ship fuzzy domains are used as a safety criterion. The criterion of the number of manoeuvres to be performed by the own ship is added to the algorithm. The ship encounters simulated situations. Calculated safe ship trajectories were presented and discussed. Discusses the implementation of the present process, in real terms.
  • Wójcik, Anna; Banaś, Paweł; Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Wójcik, Anna; Wołejsza, Piotr (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    One of the causes of ships’ accidents are errors in the communication between navigators in charge of ships concerned. The most common causes include a lack of communication, misunderstanding of a received message, incorrect choice of the type of message or misinterpretation of the information exchanged. These errors can be significantly reduced by the automation of intership communication processes, in particular by a developed automatic maritime communication system. The decision to communicate is as essential as communication itself. This paper presents the problem of identifying situations requiring the establishing of communication by a sea-going vessel. A definition of the need to establish communication between the vessels is associated with the acquisition of data, analysis and evaluation of the navigational situation and the relevant inference process. Based on an analysis of the process of identifying navigation situations which require communication between proceeding ships, the model of automatic identification of such situations has been develope
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Ship’s parameters are an essential factor taken into consideration when ship’s safe-ty is assessed in a navigational situation in a restricted area. The ship’s fuzzy domain is one of the assessment criteria. Its determination is based on the representation of previously acquired navigators’ knowledge combined with methods and tools of arti-ficial intelligence. This article presents research results and a preliminary analysis of how a ship’s size affects the shape and size of its fuzzy domain.
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The human factor should be taken into consideration to enhance the effectiveness and rationality of the operation of navigator decision support systems in the process of sea-going ship management, including the ship movement control. Increasingly more attention is focused on analyses of navigator’s behaviour and problems of the modelling of decision-making processes in ship movement control. This article deals with models of navigator decision processes. The models are based on an analysis of real decision processes and research into the acquisition, representation and application of navigators’ knowledge.
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The parameters of a water area significantly affect navigational safety. Conse-quently, they have to be taken into account while assessing a navigational situation. Ship domain is one of the criteria for the assessment of a navigational situation. This article presents the research results and an initial analysis of the relationship between the width of a restricted area and the shape and size of a ship fuzzy domain.
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Magaj, Janusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Ship movement processes in selected Traffic Separations Schemes (TSS) of Southern Baltic Sea were analyzed. Ship domains in the analyzed water areas were calculated from Automatic Identification System (AIS) registered data. The purpose of investigation was identification of ship domain parameters taking into account different domain determination criteria. The results were compared and discussed. The conclusions were drawn.
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Hatłas, Paulina; Wójcik, Anna; Wołejsza, Piotr (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The lack of proper communication between navigators is one of the many causes of dangerous situations in maritime transport. Automation of communication processes, in particular negotiation processes, can help either avoid such situations or, when they do occur, deal with them more promptly and effectively. We have characterized inference processes in maritime communication and the communication subontology used to describe these processes. The negotiating processes involving two or more parties are considered. An example is given of an encounter by three ships that requires communication (including negotiations) between the three navigators. We also present how the described communication processes can be automated using the developed subontology of communication.
  • Wójcik, Anna; Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    One of the most significant phases for automation of communication processes in shipping is building a knowl- edge base for inference processes. Communication processes include: exchange of information, perception of communication and interaction between navigators. Computing with words has been used to represent infer- ence processes covering imprecise concepts that are characteristic of natural languages. Elements of classical predicate calculus were adopted as a basic form of writing inference rules. Methods for constructing a knowl- edge base were chosen. The knowledge base architecture was proposed. This article also presents examples of inference rules in a knowledge base for automatic communication in shipping.
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Wołejsza, Piotr (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Określenie sposobu zachowania się statku ze względu na przepisy prawa drogi odgrywa istotną rolę przy wyborze procedury decyzyjnej oraz weryfikacji wyniku jej działania w nawigacyjnych systemach wspomagania decyzji. Zasadniczym celem jest opracowanie procedur określających kierunek zmian kursu lub/i prędkości z uwzględnieniem obowiązujących przepisów. Istnieje szereg publikacji dotyczących tego zagadnienia. Na podstawie analizy przepisów MPDM oraz wiedzy nawigatorów opracowano tabele decyzyjne dla sytuacji spotkań statków na akwenach otwartych w warunkach dobrej widzialności.
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Porównanie dynamicznie rejestrowanego obrazu z odpowiednim wzorcem pozwala, w przeciwieństwie do innych systemów pozycyjnych, na wyznaczenie pozycji statku niezależnie od zewnętrznych źródeł informacji. Do przetwarzania i rozpoznawania obrazów zastosowano metody i narzędzia sztucznej inteligencji w postaci sztucznych sieci neuronowych o logice rozmytej. Pozycjonowanie zrealizowano na podstawie porównania obrazu radarowego z mapą radarową konkretnego obszaru Uwzględniono zakłócenia w rejestrowanym obrazie radarowym.
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Dubowik, Wojciech (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Przedstawiono wyniki identyfikacji sytuacji niebezpiecznych w ruchu statku na akwenie ograniczonym z zastosowaniem sieci neuronowych o logice rozmytej. Dokonano Walizy wyników identyfikacji w aspekcie wykorzystania badań symulacyjnych oraz ba-ankietowych jako źródeł danych uczących dla sieci neuronowych o logice rozmytej.
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Jedną z metod oceny bezpieczeństwa ruchu statków na akwenach ograniczonych jest metoda oparta na teorii zbiorów rozmytych. Podstawową trudnością jest określenie wartości odpowiednich funkcji przynależności zbiorów rozmytych. Przedstawiono wyniki badań nad określeniem modelu opisującego funkcje przynależności zbioru rozmytego bezpiecznej odległości dla manewru podążania statków na wybranym odcinku toru wodnego Swinoujście-Szczecin.
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Magaj, Janusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The ship domain is a criterion of safety assessment in ship encounter situations. This criterion allows us to identify dangerous situations in open sea and restricted areas, the latter characterized by natural limitations such as the shore line, or artificial ones e.g., boundaries of Traffic Separation Schemes (TSSs). This article analyzes ship domains in TSSs. These schemes, being established in areas where vessel traffic is intensive, as a rule have virtual traffic lanes that indicate the direction of vessel traffic flow. The influence of the ship size and type on domain shape and size in a TSS has been examined. The domains have been defined on the basis of AIS data and statistical methods. The analyzed ship domains have been approximated by ellipses. The authors have determined intervals of changes in domain parameters.
  • Hatłas, Paulina; Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Automatic communication can help reduce errors in communication between navigators, and, consequently, increase the level of navigation safety. This article reviews some methods for the development of an ontology and looks into processes for communication at sea. Three basic elements of ontology can be distinguished: navigational information, communication and interface. The possibility of applying these methods for the construction of ontology was analyzed for a system of automatic communication at sea.
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Magaj, Janusz; Wielgosz, Mirosław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Port approaches are high-traffic areas with limited manoeuvring space. Navigation in such areas requires the analysis of large amounts of information, which can impede decision processes. One solution may be the development of decision support systems dedicated to these areas. This paper presents an attempt to build a navigation decision support system operable in the approach area leading to the port of Świnoujście (Poland), with ship domain implemented as a safety criterion. Assumptions for a decision support system to be used by sea-going vessels in port approach areas are formulated and discussed. Specific features of these areas, such as traffic density, bathymetry, available manoeuvring space and legal limitations are taken into account. The source and scope of information available to the ship have been analysed. The scope of decision support has been defined. A ship domain has been proposed as a safety criterion. Approach areas leading to the port of Świnoujście have been investigated on the basis of real Automatic Identification System (AIS) data. Vessel movement processes in the chosen area were analysed. Ship domains in various parts of the area were determined. The first results concerning criteria for navigational safety assessment are presented. The conducted studies showed significant differences in the size of domains. A case study was performed on a decision support system operable in the approach area leading to Świnoujście.

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