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  • Klimek, Hanna; Michalska-Szajer, Anna; Dąbrowski, Janusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Nowadays, seaports are not only important links between land and sea transport chains, but also serve as logistics centres. Due to their nature, they have an impact on environments both near and far, which requires the implementation of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) concept. In practice, this primarily means taking into account stakeholder expectations in planning and implementing marketing strategies. CSR is becoming the subject of interest not only for major seaports but also smaller ports with regional significance. The Port of Gdansk is the largest in Poland and one of the largest in the Baltic Sea Region, and it therefore plays a significant role in the region’s development. The aim of this article is to define the CSR areas of the Port of Gdansk Authority S.A., and the socially responsible tasks undertaken by port operators and the whole port service centre under the name of the Port of Gdansk.
  • Mańkowska, Marta (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The European river cruise market is the leading cruise market in the world and is also one of the fastest growing tourism segments in Europe. However, the demand structure of the European river cruise market has seen significant changes over recent years, and the aim of the studies described in this article was to identify the determinant factors and the ensuing changes in supply and demand within this market. The primary trend observed was a shift in demand, as the share of tourists from outside Europe has been growing with the share of Europeans (to date, the main group of customers) shrinking. These changes are attributable to social, economic, political, and technical factors that have resulted, in particular, in changes in river cruise passengers’ preferences, which in turn have led to specific reactions by river cruise operators. The analyses have shown that river cruise passengers, who are seem increasingly interested in being educated about the local culture, traditions, ecology, wildlife, arts, foods, and history, expect that the river cruise offer will be extended to include new destinations. They also expect an extended offer of wellness-related services and more active river cruises, as well as high-quality passenger space on board ship. In response, European river cruise operators have developed a cruise network and a fleet of river cruise vessels based on these emerging river cruise markets and increased the diversity and comprehensiveness of their offered services. The evolution of the European river cruise market will also constitute a challenge for emerging river cruise destinations, which will need to meet the changing expectations of both passengers and operators.
  • Milewski, Dariusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper examines the classical problem of optimization of the size of a delivery to a warehouse. Using a model developed by the author, simulations were conducted using data obtained from companies in Poland. The results revealed that the impact of this optimization on the economic efficiency of an enterprise can be considerable in some cases. It is difficult, however, to develop an appropriate mathematical formula for solving such a problem. The use of a simulation seems to be more appropriate for solving this problem than optimization models.
  • Montwiłł, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Inland ports in Europe, having undergone transformation for several decades, have become multifunctional economic spaces. Currently, these are not only transport nodes in land-water traditional transport chains but today also supply the locations of intermodal terminals, distribution centers, service and production companies, or technology parks. Multifunctional inland ports also form part of the economic systems of cities and regions, contributing to their development. The aim of this article is to present the best practices in managing inland ports in Europe. In the article, using the results of research on inland waterway transport, it is pointed out what practices in managing inland ports have led, in many cases, to their increased importance in both multi-branch transport systems and the economic development of cities and regions. The study used literature on the subject, specific information on selected European inland ports, and development strategies for selected regions in Europe, including inland waterway transport. On the basis of the above, best practices leading to the long-term development of inland ports and maximizing the added value arising in their areas were determined.
  • Oziewicz, Ewa; Bednarz, Joanna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The Maritime Silk Road of the 21st Century (MSR) is one of the two largest and most ambitious projects announced by Xi Jinping in 2013, under the current name, the Belt and Road Initiative. The main aim of this paper is to assess the opportunities and risks of the maritime portion of this project for EU countries. The authors would like to draw the attention of readers to the possible goals behind the MSR, especially now, when numerous doubts connected with the Chinese initiative have risen. The authors analyze the situation and the consequences of the MSR Initiative for European ports and shipping companies, as well as for other infrastructure and sectors connected with seaborne trade as a part of the blue economy. The MSR creates not only opportunities for developing a blue economy in EU countries, but also competitive risks. EU countries should keep in mind the growing importance of the blue economy for China (including marine industries, the exploitation of ocean resources, and services such as tourism and transport), especially since it already currently represents around 10% of Chinese GDP. It is also worth highlighting that the sea lanes of communication from China to Europe through the Malacca-Suez route are among the busiest in the world. Twenty-five percent of world trade passes through the Malacca Strait alone. This should convince EU countries to pay more attention to China’s activity at sea.
  • Szatten, Dawid; Habel, Michał; Babiński, Zygmunt; Schoeneich, Marta (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The Lower Vistula River is a Polish part of inland waterways E40 that has a comparatively low waterway class (Ib – III; excluding Wloclawek Reservoir part – Va), and projects and works should be undertaken to improve the waterway class conditions. This also depends upon the ratification of the AGN agreement by Poland, which obliges the country to adapt the main waterways to at least the fourth class of navigability. A catalog of investment activities must contain environmental objectives due to the inclusion of Lower Vistula River in the Natura 2000 protected areas network. This research includes an analysis of the impact on the inland waterway transport of the investments included in the Vistula River Basin Management Plans (RBMP). These documents make it possible to rationally manage water resources (also in the waterway transport) and indicate actions aimed at maintaining them for future generations. Therefore, in line with the Water Framework Directive recommendations, all planned investments should have a minimal environmental impact. In the coming years, large-scale infrastructure investments are planned, which will allow the waterway transport conditions to be improved and the environmental goals of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) to be achieved.
  • Urbanyi-Popiołek, Ilona (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    River cruising is well developed in Europe, particularly in the western, central, and some southern regions, and river tourism has expanded visibly during the current decade. A number of highly attractive tourist destinations are located upon rivers, the prime rivers used for cruises being the Danube, Rhine, Maine, Elbe, Loire, and Seine. The topic of this paper is an analysis of European river cruising and the determinants affecting this tourist product. In particular, the paper analyses the current state of river cruising in Poland, as well as the threats and opportunities that act as drivers for such cruising activity. This paper aims to identify and rank the main problems facing river cruising in Poland compared with prime destinations in Europe. River cruising has great potential, but it requires the removal of barriers and the addition of primary infrastructure.
  • Dobrowolski, Krzysztof; Pawłowski, Grzegorz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In the article, an analysis of the impact of outlays for R&D and intellectual property products on the GDP dynamics in European Union countries from 2009–2018 was made based on a theoretical foundation. Two hypotheses were formulated: (1) The higher the share of outlays for R&D in the GDP, the higher the GDP dynamics; (2) The higher the share of investments in intellectual property products in GDP, the higher the GDP dynamics. The hypotheses were not confirmed by statistical data analysis.
  • Drobiazgiewicz, Joanna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents the participatory budget as a tool to support the sustainable development of a city, and in particular using it as the budgeting model of the city of Szczecin and the effects of using it. Based on a critical literature review, the first part of the article shows the connections between good governance and sustainable development. The meanings of the basic concepts in this respect are presented, as well as a simplified model of the construction of the sustainable development concept. Next, public participation tools were described, and participatory budgeting was defined as one of the tools applied in good governance, constituting the basis of sustainable city development. The latter part of the article describes the models of participatory budgeting based on a literature research and an analysis of selected cases. The second part of the article is of an empirical nature. The results of the literature research are juxtaposed with the management practices of the city of Szczecin, where participatory budgeting has used since 2014. In this part of the article, the qualitative single-case study method was applied to analyse and synthesise the strategic city development directions and participatory budget between 2014 and 2019. Their compliance with the concept of sustainable development was also verified. Finally, conclusions drawn from the performed research are presented.
  • Femi-Ola, Titilayo Olufunke; Orjiakor, Paul Ikechukwu; Enerijiofi, Kingsley Erhons; Oke, Iyanuoluwa Omolade; Fatoyinbo, Adebayo Adeola (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Soil contaminated with crude oil has negatively affected some of the communities in Ekiti State region in Nigeria. There is an increased interest in microbial lipases because of their enormous potential in industrial and biotechnological applications. This study investigated the characteristics of partially-purified lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil-contaminated soil in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State. The lipase was purified by gel-filtration, having a molecular weight of 39.11 kDa, with Km and Vmax values of 12.50 and 28.86, respectively. The enzyme had an optimal pH of 8.0 and exhibited its maximal activity at 50°C, whereas the relatively stable temperature and pH were 40°C and 5.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was enhanced by olive oil, which served as the carbon source. Sodium chloride enhanced lipase activity, while calcium chloride acted as mild inhibitor, and iron chloride acted a strong inhibitor. The lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa possessed properties of an industrial enzyme and will be useful for biodegradation and bioremediation studies
  • Nyka, Maciej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Plastic littering has recently become one of the most highly recognized dangers to the marine environment. The problem of marine plastic pollution is not new and was identified more than half a century ago. Recently, however, with increased media coverage and focusing events such as the discovery of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, the problem can no longer be ignored. Several legal instruments address this problem. IMO norms aiming to reduce plastic debris were adopted 30 years ago. The MARPOL Convention includes annexes designed to help fight plastic debris. Other maritime legal instruments can also be leveraged to challenge this problem. As with other marine environment problems, the primary source of the problem, and thus the key to addressing it, is located on land. EU directives can serve as an interesting model for reducing marine pollution. The European Commission proposed new EU-wide rules in May, 2018 to target the 10 single-use plastic products most often found in Europe’s coastal habitats, as well as lost and abandoned fishing gear. Together these constitute 70% of all marine litter items. The adoption and implementation of this instrument may represent a game changing approach in the battle against marine pollution.
  • Jasionowski, Robert (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, In the opening words of this edition 58(130) I would like to thank all the readers for their growing interest in our journal. As editor-in-chief, I am pleased that there are new authors who want to publish their research in the pages of our quarterly, which includes articles in three major thematic categories: Navigation & Maritime Transport, Transportation Engineering, and Marine Technology & Innovation. The subject matter of the published papers will likely be expanded in the future, especially considering that the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin were submitted for evaluation by advisory teams appointed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in three disciplines: civil engineering and transport; mechanical engineering; environmental engineering, mining, and power engineering. Expanding the subject matter of the papers published in the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin will further improve the position of our journal at the national and international levels. I would like to announce to our readers that the quarterly Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin (in accordance with decision No. 583/P-DUN/2019 dated 21 May 2019) has obtained co-financing for 2019–2020 from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland funds allocated for activities promoting science, including translation and proofreading. In this issue of Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, the results of fourteen research papers are presented in four sections: Marine Technology and Innovation, Navigation and Maritime Transport, Transport Engineering, and Miscellaneous. The first section, Marine Engineering & Innovation, contains four articles, the first of which presents a method to classify inland waterway ships based on images from a waterway monitoring system. The second article describes an innovative solution for automatic positioning using a visual system. In the third article, an experimental study on the hydrodynamic resistance of stepped planning hulls under different geometrical and physical conditions is presented. In the fourth article, the accuracy of defining the energy efficiency of drive systems is demonstrated by comparing hydrostatic drives using proportional engine speed control as an example. In the second section, Navigation and Maritime Transport, there are three articles. In the first article, a methods which accurately map the shoreline in Inland Navigational Charts using photogrammetric and sonar images is presented. The next article is devoted to analytical method to determine VHF marine communication bands. The last article in this section contains a research article describing the impact of temperature on the duration of the navigation season on the Oder border from 2004 to 2018. The third section, Transport Engineering, contains six articles. The authors of these articles describe the importance of inland waterway transportation in maritime and land transport systems and present the 6 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin 58 (130) current state and trends in the progressive development of inland waterway transport (infrastructure, means of transport, and impact of social media). Section four, Miscellaneous, contains one article which is dedicated to the overall average in Polish maritime law. Readers are invited to visit our web page http://scientific-journals.eu/, where they may find information about the article publication process, as well as full texts of articles from the current issue 58(130) and works published in previous issues of Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin.
  • Bobkowska, Katarzyna; Wawrzyniak, Natalia (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents an analysis of the possibilities of using image processing methods for feature extraction that allows kNN classification based on a ship’s image delivered from an on-water video surveillance system. The subject of the analysis is the Hough transform which enables the detection of straight lines in an image. The recognized straight lines and the information about them serve as features in the classification process. Above all, this approach allows ships to be recognized, which can then be characterized by a specific representation and shape. Recreational units that are often seen on inland waters were classified correctly using this method. Each analyzed camera image was previously prepared – brought to the form where the ship was visible from the side and the background removed (they were monochromatic – white). The results obtained in this work will allow for the development of the final ship classification method based on camera images. This method is a significant part of the emerging system prototype, which is implemented as part of the Automatic Ship Recognition and Identification (SHREC) project.
  • Grudziński, Marek; Marchewka, Łukasz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The modern manufacturing or transportation machines that are used in industrial processes require continuous supervision in certain circumstances and even manual control by a human. Despite the fact the machines are more and more reliable and accurate than they used to be there is still the need for manual and time-consuming programming and safety control, especially when the external conditions change. For the operation of large machines, where the risk of damage and even disaster exists, an additional supervisory system based on vision devices could be utilized. The vision systems are commonly used in a range of simple 2D detection as well as very precise 3D reconstruction. The stereovision systems could be applied for unusual operations, especially in terms of safety and collision avoidance, such as crane observations while transporting a heavy load, robot and CNC machine preparation and normal operation. Through the use of optical devices the observed objects could be quickly positioned. In this research a test bench for stereovision reconstruction for the example of a robotic arm has been presented. The calibration procedures have been explained and accuracy tests in a large measuring volume were performed. Finally the possibilities of the applications and the utilization of such a system have been assessed.
  • Najafi, Amin; Nowruzi, Hashem; Salari, Mahmoud; Kazemi, Hamid (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In this paper, the hydrodynamic resistance of one-step planing craft has been experimentally investigated under different geometrical and physical conditions. For this to be accomplished, a Fridsma body model with different deadrise angles was considered. Moreover, the effect of the longitudinal distance of the step from the transom and the step height on the hydrodynamic resistance of a stepped planing craft has been evaluated at different hull velocities. According to the experimental results, frictional resistance can be enhanced by decreasing the height of the step. However, a greater total resistance can be obtained by increasing the longitudinal distance of the step from the transom. Moreover, it was found that the proportionality of the longitudinal distance of the step from the transom to the step height has a remarkable effect on the hydrodynamic efficiency of the step in stepped planing craft.

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