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  • Igielski, Michał (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents topics related to the main stakeholders of enterprises in the 21st century – employees operating in a market dominated by globalization and technological progress. To a large extent, they determine the competitive position of their organizations. To this end, the author describes the expectations of Polish employees as key stakeholders of the organization in which they are employed. Moreover, the author defines and describes the conditions that must be met to optimize the use of their potential. Good relations with this group of stakeholders is the basis for creating business strategies in the 21st century. The author also presents a description of his own research, which concerns the analysis of actions taken by companies aimed at creating optimal working conditions for their employees; this is also the main goal of this article. The analysis of source materials and research results indicated that employees played a large role in organizations and the need to implement dedicated tools and management methods. It should be obvious that the new economic realities force companies to invest in intangible resources, as it is thanks to them that it is possible to achieve market success. The main feature of companies that seek to achieve success is social sensitivity, which is manifested by a series of actions aimed at meeting the expectations of employees.
  • Kogut-Jaworska, Magdalena (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper explores the role of regional policy in strengthening the EU’s research and innovation policy paradigm, with a particular focus on smart specializations. These specializations play a major role in stimulating R&I at the regional level in less-developed regions of the EU. Smart specialization is the EU’s new concept for the regions; it assumes improvement in both innovation and competitiveness, based on endogenic potential; in particular, in already existing branches of the economy. Smart specializations should, by definition, concentrate economic resources on chosen priorities; one of these priorities is the growth of the blue economy. Smart specializations need to be clearly defined, only then can they contribute to economic growth when combined with proper management of public financial means. The objective of this paper is to introduce and characterize the assumptions for smart specializations and to assess the progress of their implementation and the necessary conditions required in Polish regions; particularly when referring to sectors of the blue economy.
  • Lubińska, Natalia (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents trade between China and Europe along the historical Silk Road, based on the materials from the Warsaw press published in the second half of the 19th century. The 19th century was a period of intense military actions led by the European empires in the Far East. The defeat of the Qing Dynasty during the Opium Wars marked the so-called cutting of the “Chinese cake” and the gradual fall of the empire. The events of this period caused an increased interest in the subject of the Middle Kingdom among Europeans and also in the Polish press.
  • Malkowska, Agnieszka (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The aim of this paper is to assess the utilization of selected transportation modes in services facilitating Polish foreign trade between 2010 and 2017. Poland’s foreign trade in commodities is characterized generally herein. The contribution of individual transport modes (i.e. road, rail, inland waterways, sea, or air) to facilitating Polish exports and imports is analyzed in terms of quantity and value. As research material, data from the Customs Administration Analytical Centre are used. Simple statistical and graphic methods (e.g., structural and dynamics indicators) are applied. Polish foreign trade in commodities grew between 2010 and 2017. At the same time, the shares of individual transport modes in facilitating exports and imports shifted, with transport by road remaining the largest contributor. Quantitatively, the share of road transport increased, in both exports and imports; however, a reverse trend was observed for its value.
  • Milewska, Beata (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper discusses logistics models of e-commerce implemented by Polish clothing companies. The author has conducted research on Polish clothing companies and logistics operators serving e-commerce branches, and here presents and compares these models. There are various logistics models of e-commerce, which differ from each other in organisation of deliveries, level of outsourcing, location for keeping stocks, level of logistics in customer service, and organisation of returns (goods returned by customers). The impact of the different e-commerce models on ecological, economic, and social priorities is then discussed.
  • Milewski, Dariusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The problem presented in this paper concerns the impact of e-commerce on transport costs, including external transport costs, compared with traditional shopping. E-commerce is a phenomenon of the modern economy that can significantly impact both the efficiency of the distribution of goods and on external transport costs. Although such a distribution system can increase the costs of freight transport to final consumers, it can also reduce traffic in cities and thus total external transport costs. In order to asses this impact, the author developed a simulation model and used it to conduct analyses. The analyses were based on available statistical data, data from the literature, and from the transportation market in Poland.
  • Oniszczuk-Jastrząbek, Aneta; Czermański, Ernest (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The exercise of the economic and social functions of maritime tourism has undergone significant changes in recent years. A case in point is the development of the maritime cruise fleet, in both quantitative and qualitative terms, across various regions. This is a result of, among other things, the changing needs of international tourists in particular regions. The worldwide expansion of globalization has also marked a turnaround in preferences, with customers now willing to visit regions formerly unattractive or rarely considered by tourists. These changes are also visible in the variety of transport modalities available to passengers for both domestic and international voyages. To a large extent, these changes stem from technological developments. New possibilities for quick and efficient passenger transport have contributed to transforming maritime tourism in many countries. This, in turn, has led to increasing volumes of tourist traffic, generating economic growth for such nations. This article discusses contemporary trends in the world’s cruise ship fleets in the context of the technical parameters of global cruise shipping. The authors have attempted to determine the basic quantitative parameters and metrics expected for characterizing the global cruise ship fleet. To accomplish this, the method of linear regression has been used, with the input data being the sizes of cruise ship fleets and some other characteristic parameters, during particular time periods, carrying capacities, registered tonnages, numbers of passenger cabins, main and auxiliary engine powers, and levels of fuel consumption. The econometric model of linear regression has allowed calculating the projected values for the nearest future.
  • Pluciński, Michał (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The issue of the impact of seaports on their direct vicinity has been repeatedly addressed in the academic literature. The developed merits of their impact is mainly related to employment in the port/port cluster, the seaport’s share of the municipality’s labour market, and the added value produced by the port/port cluster or the volume and structure of uncompensated flows into the municipality’s budget on account of the port’s operations. This article is aimed at providing an answer to the question of how to evaluate the impact of a new investment project in a seaport on its direct vicinity in a situation of low unemployment in the port’s municipality and the dominating tourism function in its economy. The research methodology was based on a single case study of the city of Świnoujście and the seaport in Świnoujście; the dominating economic function of this municipality is tourism. Moreover, it is the location of one of the four seaports with primary significance for the national economy. The development plans for the Szczecin & Świnoujście Seaports Authority include the construction of a deepwater container hub terminal. The investment will have an impact on the local social environment. The results of the conducted research studies are presented in the article both in a traditional approach enumerating the benefits of such an investment project for the local environment, as well as proposing a new approach to the evaluation of its benefits (inter alia, providing employment opportunities for people who so far have been forced to look for jobs outside the municipality and the long-term unemployed, preventing young and educated people from moving out of the municipality, attracting new inhabitants, improving the employment-to-population ratio, and stopping the city’s population ageing).
  • Adamkiewicz, Andrzej; Grzesiak, Szymon (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Due to the development of alternative propulsion systems, there is a need for LNG tanker turbine propulsion plants to regain their competitiveness. Previous research revealed effective methods to increase the thermal efficiency of the steam cycle based on quality assessment, and it was proposed that the latent heat of the main turbine exhaust steam could be recovered. Research was carried out for the steam cycle using regenerative heat exchangers fed by steam jet injectors. In this paper, an algorithm to determine the operating parameters of steam jet injectors, and the calculation results for different drive steam parameters are presented. The obtained results will be used as input parameters for further heat balance calculations of the proposed regenerative steam cycles.
  • Bistrović, Miroslav (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Today, every industry is striving for the highest efficiency and best economic results possible, with the greatest possible competitiveness. But in maritime affairs, human safety and environmental protection are the foundations of sustainability. To achieve this, marine systems must be reliable, high quality and easy to maintain. Because of this, reliability has become an important factor in safety, which remains relevant throughout the lifetimes of ship systems, including fire alarm systems. In this paper we address a number of issues connected with the reliability – and ‘availability’ of these systems. Firstly, ship fire alarm systems consist of various components whose individual reliability affect the system’s overall reliability. Discussions of reliability in ship fire alarm systems normally focus on the length of a system’s useful life or performance during design-based fire events. In addition to the reliability of systems, their availability for use is also crucial given the possibility that the system may need to operate at any point in time.
  • Cepowski, Tomasz; Kacprzak, Paweł (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents an analysis of vertical shear forces and bending moments during nodule loading in the case of a standard bulk carrier around the Clarion–Clipperton Zone. An operational efficiency index was applied to an assessment of internal forces during loading which took into account wave heights and periods around this zone. The aim of this research was to investigate whether waves could have a negative effect on loading efficiency and to estimate the nodule mass that can safely be loaded onto a standard bulk carrier taking these waves into account. Moreover, a calculation was made to discover the acceptable vertical shear force percentage limit, while also taking into account wave activity during loading.
  • Zuska, Andrzej; Więckowski, Dariusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents the results of laboratory simulation tests of a suspension system for a car seat. The first part of the paper contains a description of the experiment, paying particular attention to the conditions in which the tests were conducted and the properties of the electrically controlled damper, which was mounted in the tested car seat’s suspension. Graphs of the damper’s operation were determined for different values of current intensity and the signal controlling the damper’s damping ratio and then the damping characteristics were determined on this basis. Simulated tests of the car seat’s suspension were carried out on a car component test station. During the tests, the values measured were the acceleration recorded at selected points on the dummy, which was placed on a seat equipped with suspension using a magnetorheological (MR) damper during the experiment. The second part of the paper presents an analysis of the results of the experimental tests with particular emphasis on the influence of the current that controls the operation of the damper on the values of the RMS index of the acceleration at selected points of the dummy.
  • Oluyege, J.O.; Orjiakor, P.I. (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    All over the world, the use of medicinal plants is gaining more acceptability due to the possibility of discovering novel drugs from them and solving the problem of antimicrobial resistance associated with conventional antibiotics. The phytochemical composition and antimicrobial properties of crude extracts of the leaves, stems, and bark of Annona muricata were evaluated on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typimurium, while the antifungal properties were evaluated against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The Agar well method was used for the study. At concentrations of 150 mg/ml and 300 mg/ml, inhibitory effects were observed on E. coli and S. aureus, with a visible zone of inhibition ranging from 15 mm to 21 mm respectively, and with respect to N- hexane, an antimicrobial activity range of 5 mm to 20 mm, for the leaf extract, which shows effective antimicrobial action against E. coli and S. aureus. Hot water extracts were observed to possess more bioactive compounds compared to organic solvent extracts, and exhibit higher ranges of activity against the tested bacterial species. All extracts exhibited low anti-fungal activity in the range of 8 mm to 15 mm. The phytochemical screening of the extracts of different parts of A. muricata revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, and cardiac glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was compared with a standard antibiotic, ketoconazole, and with ampicillin, which served as the controls). The results showed that A. muricata can be used as an anti-bacterial substance, since it shows broad spectrum activity against a range of bacteria responsible for the most common bacterial illnesses. Further research will be necessary to ascertain its full spectrum of efficacy.
  • Paliszewska-Mojsiuk, Monika (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is focused on extending the cooperation between China and the countries of Central Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe. The five goals laid out by the Chinese government, along with unimpeded trade and financial integration, include people-to-people bonds. This last goal is to be achieved by education and international academic cooperation. In 2016, China’s Ministry of Education provided a detailed framework that stated which educational projects may be implemented within the BRI. The aim of this research is to analyze, based on the official documents proposed by Chinese ministries, the variety of educational programs offered by the Chinese government to the BRI countries. Furthermore, their strengths and weaknesses will be shown, and the article will also focus on the opportunities available for Polish higher education institutions that may profit from well-led projects.
  • Poszewiecki, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Various economic theories indicate that many factors determine the competitive position of national economies. In addition to classical factors such as natural resources, technology, and capital (including human capital), other elements include openness and readiness to generate and implement innovation. An important role is played by institutional and legal systems, which provide economic liberty, free competition, and protection against monopolies, corruption, and crime. According to some research, an important role is also played by issues related to intellectual property (and more precisely, industrial property). The purpose of this article is to verify the importance of intellectual property on economic development. For this purpose, literary studies and patent research were primarily used, including an analysis of the relative specialization index (RSI). The analysis results indicated that the effect of IPP on GNP was not explicit and, depending on the starting position of an economy, and an increase in IPP outlays may have various effects. Another important finding is the extraordinarily dynamic growth of the Chinese economy, as measured by patent indices.

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