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  • Przeniosło, Łukasz; Peschke, Jörg; Hering, Jörg (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The recent rapid improvement of nautical equipment functionality allows one to better observe and predict the dangers related to seamanship. However, these new features come with added complexity, and large amounts of information can overwhelm vessel crews and fleet operation centers, and the current state-of-the-art tools cannot filter out only the most important data for a given time and location. This paper presents the concepts and the algorithms of a software suite that provides a user with problem-oriented advice about a particular risk endangering a vessel and its crew. Based on the calculated navigational dangers and their predicted development, actionable guidance is proposed in an easy-to-understand human language. The quality of good seamanship is improved by a holistic approach to vessel installation, automated fleet operation center priority queuing, and the evaluation of crew performance during simulator training and daily operations. Both the software user interface, as well as the insights provided by the algorithm, are discussed.
  • Drela, Karolina (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The aim of the article is to present the essence of sustainable human resource management and attempt to answer the question of whether enterprises actually use the concept of the sustainable management of human resources in business management to achieve sustainable development. This is why the following research question was chosen for the study: “Is the concept of sustainable human resource management important in achieving sustainable development of an enterprise?” Verification of the research question and the realisation of the stated goal were made on the basis of a critical analysis of the source literature and a case study. In striving to achieve the research goal, the first part of the article presents the essence of sustainable human resource management; the second part presents a case study. This paper concludes with the applications in which the research question was confirmed. Enterprises choose a strategy for human resource management, depending on the following: the situation in the labour market, the economic situation, legal regulations, demographics, changes in technology in a given enterprise, the activities of both the employers’ and employees’ organisations, as well as self-governing bodies, employment agencies or personnel consulting firms and the capital owned by the organisation. The results of this study have shown that enterprises actually use the concept of the sustainable management of human resources in business management to achieve sustainable development.
  • Klimek, Hanna; Michalska-Szajer, Anna; Dąbrowski, Janusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Seaports are not only transport nodes but they are also important links in the land-sea transport chains and global supply chains. Due to the nature of their activities, seaports have a significant impact on both their internal and external environment. This necessitates the implementation of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). This concept focuses on, to a large extent, considering the positions of all the stakeholders when planning and implementing company strategies. Pursuant to the Act on Seaports and Harbours, the seaports in Szczecin and Świnoujście are ports of primary importance to the national economy. A great challenge for the ports is to simultaneously balance their development with caring for the environment. The aim of this article is to determine whether the seaports in Szczecin and Świnoujście are socially responsible and what the result of their impact on the natural environment and society are. This article uses the case study method, which analyses the activities undertaken by the port management as well as the enterprises that are part of the port service supply centres in Szczecin and Świnoujście, and assesses the effects of these activities. From the results, it can be stated that the Ports Authority, through its business, pro-environmental, pro-social and pro-employee activities, implements the goals of CSR and is a socially responsible entity, although more could be done.
  • Lulek, Adam; Sadowska, Beata (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the process of finding out the changing expectations of stakeholders and including them in a business management strategy. CSR is a concept of the optional incorporation of social and environmental aspects into the operations of a business entity. The objective of this article is to: (1) present the historical determinants of CSR and its practical dimension; (2) characterize the activities of fuel companies in the light of the publication of CSR information in reports; (3) indicate the information and contents of the annual reports of oil companies – in particular taking account of the information about corporate social responsibility; (4) provide proposals for the structure of a model annual report including information about corporate social responsibility which could be used for the selected oil companies that were investigated. The methods of inductive and deductive reasoning and descriptive analysis, as well as desk research were used in the writing of this article.
  • Firouzi, Jabbar; Ghassemi, Hassan; Vakilabadi, Karim Akbari (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    A propeller shaft generally experiences three linear forces and three moments, the most important of which are thrust, torque, and lateral forces (horizontal and vertical). Thus, we consider 4DOFs (degrees of freedom) of propeller shaft vibrations. This paper is presented to obtain the vibration equations of the various coupled vibrations of the propeller shaft at the stern of a ship (including coupled torsional-axial, torsional-lateral, axial- lateral, torsional-axial, and lateral vibrations). We focused on the added hydrodynamic forces (added mass and added damping forces) due to the location of the propeller behind the ship. In this regard, the 4DOFs of the coupled vibration (torsional-longitudinal and lateral vibrations in the horizontal and vertical directions) equations of shaft and propeller systems located behind a ship were extracted with and without added mass and damping forces. Also, the effect of mass eccentricity was considered on vibrations occurring at the rear of the ship.
  • Lachowicz, Maciej B.; Lachowicz, Marzena M. (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In this work, the results of tests on castings made from unalloyed cast steel, which was repaired using surface padding, have been presented. The purpose of the work was to present the impact of the application of welding technology on the microstructure of cast steels and the dangers related to it. The appearance of a very adverse microstructure was found in the area where the padding occurred. In the light of the presented research, it seems that it is necessary to apply normalizing annealing after the padding of a cast, which will result in a more uniform and fine microstructure of the material being obtained. As a consequence, this will prevent possible operating damage from occurring in the finished products.
  • Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Nanowski, Dariusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Ethylene is one of the basic raw materials of the petrochemical industry that is used to produce plastics. One of the largest producers of this compound is the USA, and a substantial increase in the demand for ethylene has also been recently observed in the Middle East, the Far East, and China. This requires the transport of this cargo by sea. Ethylene carriers are a type of LPG ships and are equipped with a cascade cycle that uses propylene or refrigerant R404A as a coolant medium. These vessels have been designed to withstand the minimum temperature of ethylene of –104°C for fully-cooled cargo. A mixture of ethylene and air (from concentrations of 2.75–2.6%) becomes explosive during heating under elevated pressures. Hence, it is necessary to form an inert atmosphere in the tanks using mostly nitrogen before the ethylene cargo is loaded. The process of aerating, inerting, gassing-up, and cooling cargo tanks and cargo is constantly repeated during the operation of LPG carriers. Due to the large amounts of ethylene lost during gassing-up, which results in significant financial losses and disruptions in cargo compressors during the cooling of the tanks and cargo, this operation is the most problematic of all. In this article, a solution is proposed for performing the gassing-up procedure which prevents excessive ethylene loss.
  • Kołowrocki, Krzysztof (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Modeling the safety of critical infrastructure free of outside impacts is presented, and basic safety indicators are defined. The safety of the port oil terminal critical infrastructure free of any outside impacts is examined based on critical infrastructure safety statistical data provided by the operators. Its safety function and other safety indicators are identified and predicted. Furthermore, the safety and resilience indicators for the critical infrastructure of the port oil terminal impacted by its operations are determined, and the results are compared to its indicators obtained without considering operation impacts.
  • Pawlak, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents the characteristics of the new generation of light sources – LEDs; these sources generate white light with various spectral distribution that could pose a potential hazard to people’s sight. The impact of electric light sources on human health, divided into ultraviolet radiation hazard, infra-red radiation hazard and visible radiation hazard – taking into account the so-called AMD (age-related macular degeneration), has been discussed in this paper and the laws on photobiological safety have been presented. The New Approach Directive and a related harmonized standard, which is the fundamental document relating to the evaluation of photobiological hazard, have been specified; related documents established in Poland have also been presented. Based on the results of the author’s research and a review of the literature, the paper ultimately concludes that LED sources (both individual ones and modules) are safe for the user in terms of photobiological safety, as long as they are used as intended.
  • Fiskin, Cemile Solak; Cerit, Ayşe Güldem (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents a bibliometric analysis of maritime transport/shipping-related publications between 1975 and November 2018 in order to describe the profile and research themes. Comprehensive queries were used to reveal the general structure of maritime transport/shipping-related literature in the context of the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-Expanded) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) databases. The analysis was conducted using bibliometric mapping. Five years of maritime/shipping literature was also comparatively presented. The results indicated major research areas, leading authors, countries, organizations, journals, and publications with the contributions of the comments of leading authors. Within the five-year period, maritime surveillance research and marine engineering research clusters were identified as developing clusters that expanded and received increased interest. Economic studies decreased, while operations research increased in the maritime transport/shipping literature. Optimization research and marine engineering research appear to be growing research clusters. Interdisciplinary research appears to have a high chance of being published in SCI-Expanded and SSCI in the future. The main contribution of this paper was the identification of areas of current research interests which allowed the quantification and visualization of changes in the entire body of shipping literature over a short time period.
  • Jasionowski, Robert (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, It is my great pleasure to present to you the latest issue of the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University in Szczecin in a new graphical layout which will be used in the forthcoming 10 issues. This issue, No. 60 (132), is the last one of this year, so I would like to use my position as Editor-in-Chief to briefly summarise the current year. In 2019, the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University in Szczecin published 69 scientific papers prepared by 129 authors (in total, without republishing). Among them, 19.37% of authors had a foreign affiliation, and the greatest contribution came from Nigerian researchers, with 6 authors. We also received contributions from 5 Ukrainian authors, 4 Croatian authors, and 4 scientists from Iran. In addition, I would like to inform you that on 9 October 2019, the Scientific Journals Evaluation Team of Index Copernicus International delivered the assessment of our quarterly according to the ICV indicator – the Index Copernicus Value. The Index Copernicus International Team evaluates scientific journals from all over the world. Journals are then included in the ICI Journals Master List database. The scientific journals are reviewed in two categories: 1 – the quality of the journal, which includes: editorial standards, publishing frequency and regularity, online availability, and internationalisation; 2 – analysis of citation trends of the journal based on the ISI Web of Science and Scopus. The Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin generated a ICV score of 99.59 for 2018, which was slightly lower than the 2017 value of 100 ICV. It should be stated that this is still a strong result because a score above 100 ICV can usually be obtained by journals with current IF and SJR indices. This issue of the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University in Szczecin presents results of twenty-seven research papers in five sections: Civil Engineering and Transport, Environmental Engineering, Mining and Energy, Management and Quality Studies, Mechanical Engineering, and Miscellaneous. The Civil Engineering and Transport section, includes eight papers which are mainly devoted to the issues of transport, including maritime, inland, rail, or motor vehicle. The authors discussed the economic, social, safety, and ecological aspects of particular modes of transportation and also presented new solutions with possible future applications. The Environmental Engineering, Mining, and Energy section, features two articles. Both papers showcase problems with environmental protection. The first article outlines the development of pro-ecological investments in Poland from 2014–2020, including an analysis of investment risks. The authors of the second paper present the results of research on the application of new mathematical models in cheaper devices capable of measuring PM10 concentrations. 6 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin 60 (132) The Management and Quality Studies section contains ten articles. The authors discuss issues related to managing methods of transport for better economic results, the impact of e-commerce on transport development and the economy, and recent innovations in e-commerce. There is also research on social issues related to managing the operations of a seaport and individual workers. The Mechanical Engineering section contains four articles. The authors of the first paper discuss ideas related to the determination of steam injector operating parameters for different drive steam parameters. The next article is devoted to the reliability and availability of fire alarm systems on ships. The third paper presents an analysis of vertical shear forces and bending moments during nodule loading for a standard bulk carrier in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone. The last article in this thematic group describes the results of simulation-based and academic research on child safety seat suspension. The last section, Miscellaneous, contains three articles on very different topics. The first paper presents research on the properties of Annona Muricata and its possible future applications as a medicinal component. The second paper discusses the cooperation between China and Central Asian, Middle Eastern, African, and European countries. The third article discloses research results on the influence of intellectual property on the economic development of a country. Finally, I would like to take this opportunity to encourage authors from all over the world to publish their articles in our scientific journal – the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin. Readers are welcome to visit our website, http://scientific-journals.eu/, where they may access the online version of the current issue as well as archival issues.
  • Abramowicz-Gerigk, Teresa; Burciu, Zbigniew; Jachowski, Jacek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Low controllability under strong winds presents a problem for the operation of inland vessels, which can be improved using passive bow rudders and transverse thrusters. Bow thrusters can sufficiently improve the manoeuvrability at low speeds, but an unsolved problem is course maintaining and yaw checking of a vessel at medium and high speeds. This paper proposes the use of a bow steering system in which the bow rotors generate a Magnus force. The first physical test model of the system showed promising results and that much more research must be performed before this system can be used in industrial applications. The paper presents the results of a numerical study on the flow field generated by bow rotors. The first stage of a ship’s turn using the bow rotors was used to determine the dependence of the expected steering force on the inflow velocity and rotational speed of the rotors. The influence of the flow generated by the bow steering system on river banks and quay walls during manoeuvres was also discussed.
  • Dąbrowski, Paweł S.; Specht, Cezary; Koc, Władysław; Wilk, Andrzej; Czaplewski, Krzysztof; Karwowski, Krzysztof; Specht, Mariusz; Chrostowski, Piotr; Szmagliński, Jacek; Grulkowski, Sławomir (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Determining the course of a railway track axis using satellite methods relies on ensuring the precise assembly of GNSS receivers in dedicated measuring devices. Depending on the number of receivers, solutions that are based on placing the apparatus directly above the railway track axis (as well as in eccentric positions) are used to indirectly obtain data to form the basis of the desired results. This publication describes the installation of five GNSS receivers on a mobile measuring platform as part of the InnoSatTrack project. The methodology and the procedure of the geodetic measurements required to obtain the geometrical configuration of the measuring apparatus, specified in the technical project, are presented. The publication presents the principles of total station measurement methods as well as the steps taken to achieve precise results from staking out. The process of acquiring the same configuration of the GNSS receivers, based on the geometry of the squares on the two measuring platforms that were used in the research, has been shown. The final determination of the position of the receivers did not exceed an error of 0.010 m with an average error of 0.003 m, despite the occurrence of mounting difficulties. The results have demonstrated the high credibility and effectiveness of the presented solution.
  • Gerigk, Mateusz; Jachowski, Jacek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents an approach for providing innovative technology by applying fluid mechanics to the field of architectural design. The aim is to make a building’s shape profitable and strengthen environmental protection by using the wind force to create an integrated wind absorption definition for a multifunctional building system model. Furthermore, taking control of the wind flow over an object can have an impact on not only the designed object itself but also on its surroundings. In modern coastal cities there are issues associated with the wind and ventilation that need to be solved. The presented system model and the calculations conducted are part of the new definition of a multifunctional object and the wind force as a significant subsystem. Systematizing this scope can be useful in design practice.
  • Jurecki, Rafał S. (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents the legal requirements for shock absorbers in suspension, for a vehicle in which they are mounted to be allowed on Polish roads. A short description of the working methodology of the device used to determine the effectiveness of a shock absorber’s damping (sometimes referred to as relative wheel adhesion) is given on the basis of the Eusama method. The method of carrying out the tests on a sample of five passenger cars are described, along with the tests carried out at different temperatures for shock absorbers installed in a suspension system. The results of the diagnostic tests of the shock absorbers carried out on a diagnostic stand, in accordance with the Eusama method, are presented. The results confirm that the ambient conditions – the temperature of the chassis components (including the shock absorbers) – only slightly influence the values of their damping efficiency.

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