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  • Agata, Krystosik-Gromadzińska (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Drones are entering the maritime sector and have successfully increased safety and security. They can effectively replace humans, and where life and health are at risk during operations such as tank or hull inspections, they can be used in a fully remote capacity. They are used to transport spare parts, documents, medicine, etc. between land and ships at sea or on the roadstead, which may increase safety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Drones can control traffic and the emission of pollutants from ships, detect pirates, monitor areas, and support operations. They are used in search and rescue missions and also provide modern technologies like 5G and others. Drones are reliable and effective, and their use minimizes costs and reduces time. This paper presents a current review of the state of knowledge on the use of drones in the maritime sector. It takes into consideration the opportunities of their utilisation and presents possibilities and examples of successful drone exploitation by various entities such as classification societies, shipyards, search and rescue (SAR) missions, and others. The benefits and limitations and a roadmap for drones in shipping are also analysed. An application forecast for the Polish maritime sector in the West Pomeranian and Pomeranian Regions is also delivered in the paper. Desk research methodology was used to review the literature to identify the set goals by analysing literature reports, articles, and materials published by beneficiaries using drones successfully, as well as inquiries and market offers.
  • Małgorzata, Bielenia (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The main objective of this article was to provide an overview of the polyurethane industry and waste treatment methods to identify the best method for polyurethane (PUR) reprocessing (recycling). To understand the need for recycling, existing knowledge will be referenced. Many literature studies discuss the role of recyclates in the polyurethane industry. According to these, the best available options to recapture value, for example, from raw materials, are polyurethane recycling and energy recovery. The research material was created via the glycolysis of polyurethane foam scrap. The experiments in this work include the glycolysis of polyurethane foam with a complex discussion of materials (polyurethane foam, glycols, catalysts, and properties of the obtained recyclate). Based on the research, analyses, and tests carried out related to glycolysis, the most appropriate conditions to recover polyols from scrap were the following reaction conditions: temperature 170–190°C; pH – basic; and atmosphere (air), which was the same for all samples. A total of 14 samples were tested. Two samples GL:12 [6:1] and GL 13 [8:1] were futher investigated. The numbers presented in brackets [6:1] mean that a ratio of 180 g of polyurethane foam and 30 g 1-3-propyleneglycol was used. The outstanding properties of glycolysate samples called GL:12 [6:1] and GL 13 [8:1] were achieved thanks to the ranges of the basic parameters (dosage time, time after dosage). The sample GL:12 [6:1] – dosage time 20 min and time after dosage 15 min and the GL 13 [8:1] sample – dosage time 22 min and time after dosage 15 min. The apparatus used for glycolysis included: reactor +heater, stirrer, feeder, reflux condenser, thermocouple, and temperature regulator. By analyzing the obtained results, it can be concluded that the most promising polyurethane waste management process is glycolysis.
  • Dembińska, Izabela (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, This is the second 2021 issue of our journal (No. 66). We are slowly seeing the world normalize after the COVID-19 pandemic, and we look forward to a complete return to our usual routines and to meeting again at conferences, seminars and research internships. Let us all hope that this will come true soon. Research results and author opinions are presented across seven articles in this issue, which are summarized in three thematic groups: Civil Engineering and Transport, Mechanical Engineering and Economics, Management and Quality Science.
  • Açik, Abdullah (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Many factors affect ship values, but the most important is freight rates. This effect is more dynamic, especially in the dry bulk market, which has characteristics close to a perfectly competitive market. The literature does not provide a complete answer about whether the effects of freight on ship values differ by ship type and age in the market; therefore, this study examined the effect of changes in the freight rates of the main ship types used in the dry bulk market on their values in different age groups. The ship types included in the study are Capesize, Panamax, and Handymax vessels, while the age groups are newbuilds, 5-year-old, and 10-year-old ships. Individual regression models were established and analyses were applied for each category. According to the obtained results, smaller vessels were more affected by changes in freight rates, and the effect of changes in freight rate increased with the age of the ship. Also, the price volatility of smaller ships was lower, while it was higher for older ships. It is hoped that these results may provide comparative results by ship type and guide industry stakeholders in reducing risks.
  • Wojciech, Leoński (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article discusses issues related to the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) of Polish universities. The first part of the article presents the essence of CSR, and the next part focuses on the degree of involvement of universities in Poland in CSR activities. Afterwards, the CSR activities were grouped based on conceptual areas in accordance with the ISO 26000 standard. Moreover, the most popular socially responsible tools and practices at Polish universities were analysed. The main aim of the article is to present the level of corporate social responsibility and identify its main areas at the top 10 universities in Poland according to The Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2021. The article uses the literature query method and analyses and evaluates documents, reports, and websites. The research carried out at the top 10 Polish universities showed that all these entities are involved in socially responsible activities by taking into account social, environmental, and employee aspects in their activities. They are organizations that feel responsible for their activities and take into account the needs of their stakeholders, both internal and external.
  • Chłopińska, Ewelina; Tatesiuk, Jakub; Śnieg, Jakub (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Environmental pollution is a growing concern for many organizations, commissions, state governments, and companies. The use of fossil fuels in transportation contributes significantly to increased emissions of harmful sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Maritime transport, as one of the largest emitters of such harmful compounds, has encountered many emission restrictions and legal limitations. These include the creation of areas of strict exhaust gas control (ECA). According to the MARPOL Convention, Annex VI, Special Emission Control Areas have been in force since 01.01.2015, and they include the following areas: the Baltic Sea, North Sea, North America (covering the designated coasts of the USA and Canada and portions of the Caribbean Sea near the USA). According to current regulations, vessels providing services in ECAs are required to maintain sulphur oxide emissions that do not exceed 0.1%. The introduction of new regulations results in costs that have to be covered by shipowners. To meet these standards, the two most popular methods are the use of special flushing systems (scrubbers) and low-sulphur fuels (e.g., LNG). This publication addresses the use of LNG as fuel for the main propulsion of sea-going vessels operating in areas covered by strict sulphur emission controls. It also presents LNG demand forecasts for various ship types, as well as possible solutions satisfying the Sulphur Directive. The purpose of this paper is to present a way to determine the size of the global demand for LNG. The percentage of vessels powered by LNG and other fuels was used as a basis for estimating global LNG demand in shipping until 2030.
  • Balandina, Iryna; Pysareva, Iryna; Obolentseva, Larysa; Vlashchenko, Nataliia (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The COVID-19 pandemic and the strict anti-epidemic measures introduced by various countries have accelerated the transformation of tourism around the world. The industry has lost hundreds of billions of dollars and millions of jobs. At the same time, digital startups have entered the market, and new opportunities for individual tours and formats of international cooperation have appeared. Trends for modern travelers are widespread lowcost, p2p services for tourists, which exclude intermediaries from the supply chain and allow the creation of unique and personalized travel experiences. At the present stage of the tourism sector development, information technologies and software tools play an important role. Evolution and technological progress have penetrated the tourism market and the organization of excursion activities. For example, unique multimedia guides for mobile phones using GPS navigation have been developed for tourists. Historically, transport has been a fundamental component of the tourism sector and has allowed tourists to travel comfortably and quickly. Advantages and disadvantages of a trip throughout a city on a sightseeing bus are considered. In this paper, we analyze the most popular market software for mobile applications for navigating tourists during travel. Such applications are generally very popular due to a high level of modern societal mobility and the need for operational navigation, primarily in new urban spaces. The market is quite saturated with software from different manufacturers, and such high competition dictates requirements for functionality and services provided to a user; therefore, manufacturers are forced to expand additional services to increase their competitiveness. Tourists’ basic requirements for mobile applications on a trip were determined by tourist canvassing. Suggestions for improving mobile applications to navigate tourists on trips are provided, and special attention has been paid to creating the most comfortable and optimized excursion methods while taking into account tourist wishes.
  • Jakubowski, Andrzej; Dounar, Stanislau (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The results of finite element analysis of large machined rotor fastened into heavy precise lathe are reported. Many design changes are simulated to improve the dynamic rigidity of the machining. Three radial eigenmodes detrimental to the accuracy were revealed: rotor-stock bending at 17.7 Hz (“half-wave”), rotor-lathe bending at 36.1 Hz (“full-wave”), and “support rocking” at 68.1 Hz. The frequency response functions and dynamic rigidities were evaluated. Three compliance issues were revealed: angular flexibility of the spindle console, low stiffness of the lathe bed (with boots), and an excessively slender tailstock. It is proposed to transform the spindle chuck into a table with additional hydrostatic backing, fill the bed cavities with concrete, and redesign the tailstock as a counter-spindle unit. This will decrease the amplitude of the main rotor resonance by 6.3 times and upshift the frequency near two-fold from 17.7 to 35 Hz. The renovated lathe should be able to machine a rotor without a lunette system or overriding the main resonant frequency.
  • Dembińska, Izabela (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, We are pleased to present this year’s first issue (No. 65) of the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin. This year will bring many new challenges, also for the journal, where we continually focus on improved quality. We would like to thank the authors, reviewers and readers for their contribution to our journal. I hope that we will continue to develop this path together. This issue presents the research results and authors’ views in seven articles organized into three thematic sections: Civil Engineering and Transport, Mechanical Engineering, and Economics, Management and Quality Science. The Civil Engineering and Transport section features two articles. The first article presents an analysis of internal forces and roll motion during a nodule loading simulation for a ship at sea. The study carried out a full assessment of a ship’s behaviour during loading, which took into account wave height and period around the Clarion–Clipperton Zone by the use of an operational efficiency index. The second article addresses the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). The Convention aims to improve the safety of life at sea by laying down rules and regulations for the construction of ships and providing models for the documents created. The Mechanical Engineering section consists of three articles. In the first article, the authors analysed the special configuration of a multi-role moving-column machining centre by the finite element method. In the second article, a CFD-based numerical approach was developed and applied to a trimaran hull in the presence of regular and irregular waves. According to the authors, the proposed CFD method reduces the simulation time and calculation resources needed to determine a ship’s motion. The third article presents the results of the testing of long-distance heat transfer surfaces in marine diesel engines, including elliptical and flat-oval tubes. The study used mathematical models that involved equations from conservation of energy, equations of motion, continuity and state, where the RSM of turbulence was also used to complete the equation system. The Economics, Management and Quality Science section includes two articles. The first article analyses the factors affecting the performance of VTS operators. Its general conclusion is that the effective work of VTS operators, combined with a specific maritime environment and vessel traffic management support system, are the key determinants for ensuring the reliability and safety of the entire system. The second article’s authors wanted to see if a multi-criteria analysis was appropriate for the evaluation and implementation of energy-efficient mobility in seaports. The multi-criteria model for the selection of the most appropriate energy-efficient mobility solution was tested for two Croatian private marinas. The articles featured in this issue reflect the authors’ theoretical and practical inspirations, contributing to important and state-of-the-art scientific research. We believe that these findings will become the basis for further reflection, discussion, and broader research.
  • Matusiewicz, Maria; Rolbiecki, Ryszard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    A holistic approach and stakeholder consultation are necessary before implementing a particular city logistics measure. The need to implement sustainable urban logistics solutions is particularly important in seaports located in cities. Such cities, particularly Gdynia, have a high intensity of cargo flows resulting from transport connected with their port facilities. The purpose of this article was to identify the level of acceptance of sustainable and innovative urban logistics solutions by entities that use the services of the seaport in Gdynia. We investigated whether the proposed solutions found sufficient acceptance among the respondents, and which of the proposed solutions were the most preferred by stakeholders. We hypothesized that urban logistics solutions were not sufficiently accepted by the stakeholders of the seaport of Gdynia. In order to analyze the awareness of the involved parties, we surveyed parties at the Port of Gdynia as part of the Interreg project called TENTacle. Our findings did not support this hypothesis with respect to such measures as FQP, the use of interactive city maps, night deliveries, and the use of ITS, as these are the solutions most preferred by the stakeholders of Gdynia. The results of this study can therefore serve as an important tool for the city of Gdynia, and similar cities, when preparing sustainable urban logistics plans.
  • Barczak, Agnieszka (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Transport is integral to every city, having a crucial impact on its functioning and development. As road infrastructure does not up to keep up to speed with the constantly growing numbers of vehicles on roads, new solutions are required. Fast urban railway systems are a solution that can reduce transport congestion, with environmental protection issues also taken into account. Following these reasons, the decision was made to build the Szczecin Metropolitan Railway (Szczecińska Kolej Metropolitalna, or SKM), consisting of four lines constructed using existing railway infrastructure, within the Szczecin Metropolitan Area (SMA). The construction works on the linear and point assets of the SKM are ongoing and will be concluded in 2022. Therefore, given the large impact of this project on the affected communities, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the expectations of the SMA population concerning the launch of the SKM via a large-scale questionnaire. For the purposes of the study, the following research hypothesis was defined: from the assessment of the affected residents, the introduction of the SKM will considerably improve the travel experience and greatly facilitate transit within the fast railway system’s area of impact. From the analysis of the questionnaire, it could be concluded that the introduction of the SKM will have a positive impact on the improvement of transport within the Szczecin area and shorten travel times significantly.
  • Kacprzak, Paweł (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents an analysis of internal forces and roll motion during a nodule loading simulation for a ship at sea. The study carried out a full assessment of ship behavior during loading, which took into account wave height and period occurrence around the Clarion–Clipperton Zone by the use of an operational efficiency index. One of the aims was to verify whether waves have an influence on excessive ship motion and internal forces during nodule loading. Two alternative loading sequences were developed and compared by taking loading time, shear forces, bending moments, roll motion and waving into account. The research shows that loading is only possible during specific sea weather conditions for the selected bulk carrier.
  • Kuznetsov, Valerii; Gogorenko, Oleksiy; Kuznetsova, Svetlana (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Charge air cooling is essential for the efficient operation of marine diesel engines. This work presents the results of research on the characteristics of long-range heat transfer surfaces for marine diesel engines. Elliptical and flat-oval tubes were considered. This study was carried out using mathematical models that consisted of the equations for energy conservation, motion, continuity, and state. The RSM turbulence model was used to close the system of equations. To solve the resulting system of equations, the RANS approach was used, which was implemented in the software package Code Saturne with a free license and the SimScale cloud service. The mathematical model was verified by comparing the model results with the experimental results obtained using a prototype heat-exchange surface of a charge air cooler at a test bench. The discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental heat transfer coefficient α was ≤ 8.3%. An estimate of the compactness of smooth elliptical and flat-oval tube banks compared with round ones was carried out. A 19.6% increase in compactness was obtained for elliptical tubes and 17.5% for flat-oval tubes. Based on the profiled finning surfaces, it is possible to improve their thermohydraulic characteristics by up to 40% when using them together with elliptical tubes compared with round ones and up to 26% when using them with flat-oval tubes.
  • Boljat, Helena Ukić; Vilke, Siniša; Grubišić, Neven; Maglić, Livia (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In Europe, at the end of the 20th century, the growth of marinas followed the rapid development of recreational marine activities. This trend has now slowed and today the creation of new marinas or the extension of existing marinas is less common, mainly due to the enforcement of protective environmental regulations. As the port sector is facing some major sustainability challenges, like tackling the pollution generated from port activities, the “green port”, or “green marina”, concept has now become a requirement. Both types of nautical ports, public ports and private marinas, share the same responsibility to achieve management standards. The term “green port” in practice describes the responsible behavior of all stakeholders in the port’s business, with a focus on the long-term vision towards the sustainable and climate-friendly development of the port’s infrastructure. This paper aims to confirm the adequacy of multi-criteria analysis (MCA) for the evaluation and introduction of energy efficient mobility options in nautical ports. Within the paper, a multi-criteria based model for energy- efficient mobility selection is presented. This model is tested on two Croatian private marinas and obtained results indicating the most suitable action for both. The output of the model showed that by far the best energy- efficient solution was the installation of electric charging stations (ECS) for cars. The presented model can assist decision-makers in port authorities and marina administrations in planning and finding the best scenario for the development of energy efficient systems and services.
  • Marcjan, Krzysztof; Kotkowska, Diana (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Abstract This paper examines the factors affecting the performance of VTS operators. A general review of the human factor as a determinant of navigational safety is presented. The elementary nature of the system and its structure are defined, and the ability of a VTS operator to perform planned tasks within a specified timeframe and in a specific manner is analyzed. A reliability assessment scheme is proposed, which is based on the interpretation of factors affecting the VTS operator’s efficiency. The effective performance of VTS operators, along with the specific nature of the maritime environment and reliability of the vessel traffic management support, are key determinants in the process of ensuring the reliability and security of the entire system.

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