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02 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, no. 2 / 2004



 

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  • (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Table of content
  • Abramowicz-Gerigk, Teresa (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents the state of art on three dimensional transient flows induced by a ship approaching a berthing structure. The results of full scale measurements of the velocity field obtained during the trials conducted in Gdynia Port with the motor ship “Horyzont II” are given. At the present stage of research the results of measurements have been used for the qualitative assessment of phenomena and making preliminary conclusions regarding the hydrodynamic forces.
  • Abramowski, Tomasz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents an attempt at numerical wake determination of a ship moving with drift. For the calculation of viscous flow a numerical method based on the solving of RANS equations has been applied. A bulk carrier hull has been chosen for the analy-sis. The results show complex features of the flow in the stern area. Distributions of wake factor are strongly non-uniform both in radial and circumferential directions and the non-uniformity gets stronger as drift angle increases.
  • Artyszuk, Jarosław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Restricted water effects upon ship manoeuvring are investigated from the full-scale based identification viewpoint. As the resistance increase may be quite accurately corre-lated with the squat, it is proposed to store in the ship manoeuvring model kernel only data on the ship's squat. The problem of correction factors (multipliers) to be imposed upon ship added masses and hull force coefficients is raised. Different patterns (combi-nations) of the multipliers are simulated to show the most representative ship behaviour with regard to turning and zigzag manoeuvres.
  • Artyszuk, Jarosław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The existing regression models on the bank (wall) effect are compared to one an-other both dynamically (force level) and kinematically (counteracting helm and hull drift attitude during a steady-state passage along a bank). A small chemical tanker of known hull and rudder hydrodynamics is used as an example of computations. A lot of essential qualitative and quantitative discrepancies have been found, which might claim the re-gression models of little use in an adequate bank effect simulation. Further research is required in this field.
  • Bojarowski, Krzysztof (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The results of repeated surveys were used to visualize and evaluate shifts and alter-ation of the configuration of surface objects. The ArcView system with Spatial Analyses and 3D Analyses aplications was adopted as the elaboration platform. The presented examples have served to demonstrate some of the new facilities created by the applica-tion of spatial information systems in deformation analyses.
  • Cepowski, Tomasz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents a method for the stability assessment taking into account ship behavior in waves. The m the method aims at examining ship seakeeping ability by the numerical sea test simulation in real-life operation scenarios. The article presents an application of the method for seakeeping analysis which served as a basis for stability criterion formulation.
  • Duda, Jarosław; Borawski, Mariusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper describes a research concerning possible applications of orthogonal ba-ses for the recognition of changes between various forms on the seabed recorded as sonar images. The distribution of changes in seabed forms is characteristic of any place. Therefore, they can be associated with geographical co-ordinates, which can be used for determining ship position in comparative navigation.
  • Dzikowski, Remigiusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper contains a mathematical description of non-conventional methods of ad-justing a magnetic compass. The advantages and disadvantages of new methods have been discussedon the basis of the simulalation.
  • Filipowicz, Włodzimierz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Separation schemes along with Vessel Traffic Services have improved the safety of navigation, particularly within restricted waters. Their role is rather passive and com-mon sense is still required whenever a decision is to be made. It is assumed that it could be beneficial in terms of collision or accident risk reduction once active measures are introduced. The concept raises a wide variety of problems that are to be discussed, de-fined and solved.
  • Galor, Wiesław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The under-keel clearance of a ship manoeuvring in a port water area should pro-vide for safe ship movement. The results of undesired ship impact into the channel ground can damage the ship hull. There is a need to prepare a scientific method of speci-fying the minimum under-keel clearance such that the safety of a manoeuvring ship will be maintained. The article presents guidelines for of the model enabling the estimation of ship impact into the bottom.
  • Gościewski, Dariusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Digital terrain models are often generated on the basis of data recorded automati-cally. If such sets are to be processed, the measured quantities must be ordered and represented as a GRID or TIN structure. Terrain model accuracy depends on establish-ing appropriate processing criteria and proper selection of design parameters of a given structure. The effects of measuring points distribution on the selection of design parame-ters of a regular square grid for the purpose of generating a digital bottom model have been analysed in the paper.
  • Gucma, Lucjan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents a concept of probabilistic and risk-based decision support mod-el for large ships admittance to ports. Two main accident types are included into the model: accidents due to ships exceeding horizontal boundaries of manoeuvring area and accidents due to ship hitting the bottom because of failing to maintain the safe under-keel clearance.
  • Gucma, Maciej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Vessel maneuvering in restricted areas requires expert knowledge (usually that of a pilot who is a specialist in a given area). To minimize the influence of shipboard equipment on pilot decisions, it is proposed to create a pilot navigational system (PNS). One of the PNS components is an electronic compass. The article looks into se-lected compass technologies. The accuracy of AMR (anisotropy magnetoresistive tech-nology) electronic compass has been assessed.
  • Gucma, Stanisław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article deals with local coordinate systems used in navigation in restricted areas. Typical examples of such systems are shown.
  • Jóźwiak, Zofia (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Commonly used models of accidents at work have been presented. A quantitative analysis of accidents at the port of Szczecin (frequency, seriousness, accident rate) has been carried out for the years 1996 – 2000. A detailed quantitative and qualitative anal-ysis has been carried out for accidents during cargo-handling operations. On the basis of the estimated occupational hazard, employees’ safety has been assessed. A model card of occupational hazard assessment for cargo-handling places has been suggested.
  • Juszkiewicz, Wiesław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    One of the most important factors of the tracked target movement estimation accu-racy is precise information on own ship’s true course and speed. If this information is incorrect due to constant error, the computed true course and speed of the tracked target could be false. The research herein presented has dealt with the estimation accu-racy in the case when the information on true speed of own ship is false.
  • Kasyk, Lech (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The set of dates and hours of ship reports is a time series. In this paper, reports of ships passing the VTS reporting line “Police”, in the Szczecin – Świnoujście fairway have been considered. The paper is a detailed analysis of this time series. The cyclical variation and trends for each month and the whole year 2002 have been determined.
  • Kasyk, Lech (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The author has tested a hypothesis concerning the exponential distribution of the waiting times for the reporting of the next fairway vessel in the y Szczecin – Świnoujście fairway. The “chi square” Pearson test has been used. The relevant 2002 data have been examined in three sets: for weekdays, for holidays and for days immediately preceding or following holidays (“near-holidays”).
  • Kopacz, Zdzisław; Morgaś, Wacław; Urbański, Józef (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper defines e basic notions regarding the discussed subject, i.e. “maritime safety”, “maritime security” and “maritime defence”. Besides, basic maritime systems and their functions have been discussed. An attempt is made to introduce a Unified Maritime Safety and Security System as well as its structure and functions.
  • Król, Monika (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents a comparison between analytical and simulation method of the determination of mooring energy. To this end, the mooring energy for selected quays at the Port of Świnoujscie Harbour was determined.
  • Łubczonek, Jacek; Juszkiewicz, Wiesław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    By applying digital model of the sea bottom it is possible to model information de-pending on dynamical phenomena, such as squat. This article presents a conception of data modeling , which allows to visualize safe depth area depending on ship speed. That kind of information can be implemented in numerical charts.
  • Łusznikow, Eugeniusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In article the question of accuracy increase for radar-tracking observations is con-sidered by transition to diverse differential lines of position – to isogons and hyperboles. The simple technique of construction of such lines of position is offered. The mathemati-cal description for an estimation of casual errors of a method is resulted; mathematical expression for calculation of a gradient direction of an isogons is resulted.
  • Łusznikow, Eugeniusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The mathematical description of accuracy as the basic criterion of the safety at СРА with the use of a radar and AIS is presented. The accuracy of a radar and that of an AIS in the mode of coordinates relayed from GPS and DGPS is compared. It is proved that within the limits of an observation zone and a zone of maneuvering the AIS is always more effective, than the radar, while and the radar is more effective in a zone of excessive approach on condition that the AIS uses the GPS.
  • Piszczek, Wojciech; Majzner, Piotr (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper sets forth a computer simulation method analysis of the phenomenon of traffic flow movement in an approach area and in a fairway. The model takes into con-sideration the probability of a vessel report in the fairway approach area and the dis-persion of the speed values of fairway vessel traffic. The advantage of this method for the identification of the phenomena and parameters estimation of the movement process has been proved.
  • Montewka, Jakub (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents a concept of the method of determination the horizontal dimensions of safe maneuvering area for vessels, based on laser measurements, conducted at the entrance to the Port of Świnoujście. The error analysis of the method is discussed as well
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The parameters of a water area significantly affect navigational safety. Conse-quently, they have to be taken into account while assessing a navigational situation. Ship domain is one of the criteria for the assessment of a navigational situation. This article presents the research results and an initial analysis of the relationship between the width of a restricted area and the shape and size of a ship fuzzy domain.
  • Smolarek, Leszek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    During a storm the life raft is subject to dynamical wind and wave forces. The probabilistic evaluation of the life raft safety is closely connected with random events and values of hydrological and meteorological conditions and the raft load. It is neces-sary to obtain the risk function of raft safety against capsizing.
  • Staszewska, Karolina; Cepowski, Tomasz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents a methodology of approximation of ship’s response to wave ac-tion impact. The methodology, based on recorded ship’s operational parameters, makes it possible to modify approximated functions in the case when they turn out inaccurate. The developed method was tested for real values of ship rolling simulated by values computed by means of accurate numerical methods.
  • Stateczny, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The introduction of Automatic Identification System (AIS) was a great step to improve maritime safety. It was an extra source of navigational data in addition to radar. The problems of radar and AIS navigational data fusion are descussed in this article.
  • Szelangiewicz, Tadeusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents the problem of a ship maneuvering in waves. Crucial wave ef-fects are discussed resulting in reducing the righting moment. A proposal is presented for the modification of the stability criterion, which is the initial metacentric height. Furthermore, the paper introduces a method for the initial metacentric height calcula-tion for a ship sailing along her assumed service route in a sea area with given parame-ters of random waves.
  • Szozda, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    At present, intact ship stability criteria have prescriptive nature. At the 45-th Session of SLF Sub-Committee a decision was made to change IMO attitude concerning intact ship stability from prescriptive rules to performance based rules. This paper aims at providing a basic framework for the development of intact ship stability criteria based on a deterministic scenarios concept. The concept is described in general and one simple scenario is calculated in detail. This scenario concerns shifting of a deck cargo.
  • Śmierzchalski, Roman (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The use of real systems, PLC controllers and visualization systems provides oppor-tunities for wider range of training, including manual operation of devices, and reaching goals within the field of examining functions of real systems. On the basis of program-mable controllers, control desks and visualization systems it is possible to develop any simulation system. An example of such an application is the stand simulating the power station with electric main propulsion of the ship
  • Zalewski, Paweł; Tomczak, Arkadiusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents an analysis of the current GNSS constellation geometry (comprising 28 active GPS satellites) performed in the Port of Świnoujście. The geome-try disturbances resulting from the harbour infrastructure were taken into consideration and values of mask angles were determined depending on ship’s position in the fairway and GPS antenna location. On this basis the availability of GPS position in the Port of Świnoujście was evaluated. The statistical analysis of satellites locations’ impact on the geometrical quality of GNSS receiver’s position was made after grouping available satellites’ parameters into four main sectors (N, E, S, and W).
  • Uchacz, Waldemar (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Odra is a natural shipping route for barges carrying goods between Szczecin and Berlin harbours. As a significant increase of cargo transport is expected to take place after Poland’s accession to the UE, some efforts have been made to estimate the limita-tions in traffic, resulting from the passage through the Hohensaaten lock, connecting Odra with the Odra–Havel Canal. The article presents a mathematical model of barge traffic, belonging to the fuzzy integer linear programming problems, based on the sym-metric model proposed by Zimmermann.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article deals with the problem of ship ocean route programming. Methods of computing minimum-time routes and examples of route recommendations by the Polish Steamship Company land-based center are presented
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Drozd, Andrzej (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents the ship weather routeing problem as a decision-making of ship route selection in fuzzy conditions. An attempt was made to set forth a formal defi-nition of fuzzy environment elements: fuzzy goals, constraints and decisions. The con-sidered problem was classified as a problem of decision made by one person, in one stage of decision procedure and as multi-criterion problem.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Medyna, Piotr (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper describes a tropical cyclone storm field range (winds exceeding 34 knots) as a tropical cyclone fuzzy domain, giving an example of 36H prognosis for the North Atlantic.
  • Zwierzewicz, Zenon; Borkowski, Piotr (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents a design of an adaptive system of ship course stabilization based on Nomoto’s model. As a control algorithm the LQR control was adopted,whereas the model identification is performed on the basis of ‘continuous version’ of the least-squares algorithm. The performance of the system operation was simulated using a de Witt-Oppe nonlinear model as a real ship model.

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