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40 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, no. 40 / 2014



 

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  • Chybowski, Leszek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear readers As a newly nominated Editor-in-Chief of Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin I warmly welcome all of you. This new function is a great honour and distinction for me. Taking this opportunity I would like to thank the previous Editor in Chief Zbigniew Matuszak, DSc, PhD for his great contribution in the development and promotion of the magazine. Because of many other responsibilities Prof. Matuszak could not continue this duty. I wish to continue his work and improve the position of the Scientific Journals in national and global rankings as well as promote and disseminate the latest scientific achievements of the maritime sector, including those of the faculties of our university.
  • Homik, Wojciech (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    The main source of vibration in the engine piston is the work of the piston – crank, and swapping reciprocating motion to the rotary motion. In this paper are described among others the crankshaft vibration which result in the occurrence of cyclic forces such as forces pressure of gas and inertia forces. In addition were made the analysis of longitudinal vibration of the crankshaft, which are these vibrations are an important problem in high-power vessels’ engines. Regardless of the dynamic system in which the engine is running the greatest threat for crankshaft are the torsional vibrations. The possibilities of vibration damping of the crankshaft in the engine also were discussed.
  • Rajewski, Przemysław; Behrendt, Cezary; Klyus, Oleh (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    Fishing limits, necessity to cope with competitive fishermen of other countries, the lack of financial resources to purchase modern vessels have caused that more than 30% of the Polish fishing vessels operating at the Baltic sea were withdrawn from operation between 2003 and 2012. Vessels remaining in service, especially older types have to be upgraded by the owners towards: reduction in energy expenditure; reduce the number of crew boats by the expansion of mechanization of fishing operations; improving the safety of vessels and working on fishing boats. Uncoordinated modernizations of the fishing cutters prevent from comparing the obtained results. A research team of the Maritime University of Szczecin gathered opinions of the shipowners regarding the effects of the modernizations performed and conducted research which shall constitute the grounds to develop optimal directions for modernization and operation of the fishing vessels. This paper presents range and results of renovation and reconstruction the Polish fishing vessel DZI-102 operated at the Baltic sea.
  • Sugalski, Karol (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    In this paper, application of the computational fluid dynamics has been presented in the process of design natural ventilation system for the fishing vessel. There are two main types of ventilation systems: natural ventilation which is used on small fishing vessels and sport craft boatsand, and forced ventilation. This type of ventilation is a common solution on all types of merchant ships. In this paper, solution of the velocity filed in the cargo hold space of the fishing vessel had been presented. Natural ventilation system has been validated using the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). All calculations had been performed in the free CFD software called OpenFOAM.
  • Sugalski, Karol (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    Hull resistance and propulsion calculations are the basis of every ship design. In this paper, application of the computational fluid dynamics are presented together with the results of towing resistance of the model of stern trawler. The practical use of CFD in the preliminary vessels' design process were presented at the stern trawler vessel type.All calculations had been performed in the free CFD software called OpenFOAM. This is set of C++ programming language libraries, designed to solve Navier-Stokes equations.
  • Valishin, Aleksander; Adamkiewicz, Andrzej (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    This paper presents the results of analytical studies on determination of vibration characteristics of cylinder liners of diesel engines based on the development and application of mathematical models. Mathematical relationships for cyclic deformations in a longitudinal cylinder sleeve for circumferential and radial directions have been developed. Sufficient convergence of the model with the results of practical measurements given in the literature has been shown.
  • Chorab, Paweł (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    The paper presents sample calculations concerning the assessment of the vulnerability to pure loss of stability of a fishing vessel. Calculations were performed for level 1 and level 2 of the method under consideration. In the summary the author discusses the results of calculations. The paper describes the results method for assessment of the stability criteria for a fishing vessel. Calculations were performed by software MAXSURF after the implementation of the algorithm. The result of the calculation are measure the phenomenon criteria of pure loss of stability of a fishing vessel.
  • Dobryakova, Larisa; Lemieszewski, Łukasz; Ochin, Evgeny (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    Many civil GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) applications need secure, assured information for asset tracking, fleet management and the like. But there is also a growing demand for geosecurity locationbased services. Unfortunately, GNSS is vulnerable to malicious intrusion and spoofing. How can users be sure the information they receive is authentic? Spoofing is the transmission of matched-GNSS-signalstructure interference in an attempt to commandeer the tracking loops of a victim receiver and thereby manipulate the receiver’s timing or navigation solution. A spoofer can transmit its counterfeit signals from a stand-off distance of several hundred meters or it can be co-located with its victim. Spoofing attacks can be classified as simple, intermediate, or sophisticated in terms of their effectiveness and subtlety. In an intermediate spoofing attack, a spoofer synchronizes its counterfeit signals with the authentic GNSS signals so they are code-phase-aligned at the target receiver. In this paper we consider the anti-spoofing algorithms based on spoofing detection via Dual-Receiver.
  • Dobryakova, Larisa; Ochin, Evgeny (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    Spoofing and antispoofing algorithms have become an important research topic within the GNSS discipline. The power of the GNSS signal on the earth’s surface averages –160 dBw. While many GNSS receivers leave large space for signal dynamics, enough power space is left for the GNSS signals to be spoofed. The goal of spoofing is to provide the receiver with a misleading signal, fooling the receiver to use fake signals in space for positioning calculations. The receiver will produce a misleading position solution. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the vulnerability of the satellite signal in repeater’s output from the viewpoint of GNSS spoofing attacks. The article discusses a new approach to GNSS spoofing, based on the application of GNSS signals repeating by potential terrorists. Practical spoofing that provides misleading navigation results at the receiver is difficult to conduct due to the signal infrastructure, and by applying trivial anti-spoofing algorithms in GPS receivers, spoofing attack can be easily detected. To detect spoofing attacks of this type we have a variety of methods. For example, the authors suggest the use of paired navigators and GNSS compasses as detectors of GNSS spoofing. Introduction Spoofing and antispoofing algorithms have become an important research topic within the GNSS discipline. There is an ever-increasing attention to safe and secure GNSS applications such as air, marine, and ground transportations, police and rescue services. The power of the GNSS signal on the earth’s surface averages –160 dBw. While, many GNSS receivers leave large space for the dynamics of the signal, enough power space is left for the GNSS signals to be spoofed. The goal of spoofing is to provide the receiver with a misleading signal, fooling the receiver to use fake signals in space for positioning calculations. The receiver will produce a misleading position solution. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the vulnerability of the satellite signal in repeater’s output from the viewpoint of GNSS spoofing attacks. The article discusses a new approach to GNSS spoofing, based on the application of GNSS signals repeating by potential terrorists. Practical spoofing
  • Dzikowski, Remigiusz; Ślączka, Wojciech (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    The paper discusses issues of the assessment of collision risk in vicinity of oil and gas production facilities located in the southern Baltic Sea. The authors have used IWRAP mk2 application to assess the probability of collision, focusing on the impact of fishing vessels. The analysis has been performed at the Research Centre for Ship Operation Risk Analyses, Maritime University of Szczecin.
  • Januszewski, Jacek (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    Currently (July 2014) an uninterrupted information about the ship’s position can be obtained from specialized electronic position-fixing systems, in particular, Satellite Navigation Systems (SNSs) as GSP and GLONASS and Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBASs) as EGNOS or WAAS. On each ship’s bridge one GPS stationary receiver is installed at least but on many ships there are two or even more GPS receivers. Nowadays, several hundred different end-user products and broad/chipset/modules are available on the world market, however for ship’s bridge several dozen models provided by a dozen or so manufacturers are designed only. In this paper 309 GPS receivers, 47 different models of 12 manufacturers installed on 188 ships of different types and with different lengths were taken into account. The relations between the type and the length of the ship, the number of the GPS receivers installed on one ship, the manufacturers and the models the most frequently used are presented.
  • Medyna, Piotr (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    The paper presents the situation of hydro-meteorological fisheries protection in terms of institutional, formal and law regulations. It presents the most important types and sources of weather information for the needs of fisheries.
  • Szozda, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    One of the main tasks of the Sub-committee on Ship Design and Construction (SDC) of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is development of the 2nd Generation Intact Stability Criteria. The paper presents the framework and the approach agreed by the Sub-committee. The framework bases on the concept of stability failure and vulnerability assessment. However, the criteria, standards and regulations developed so far have weaknesses that may prevent some IMO Member States from adoption of the regulations on the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) level. The paper presents some of the weaknesses that are the most important from the Author’s point of view. Awareness of the weaknesses may facilitate the future work of the Sub-committee and its working groups.
  • Wawrzyniak, Wawrzyniec; Dudko, Stanisław; Czerniejewski, Przemysław (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    During of the political and economical transformation in Poland in the 1990s the optimal fishing vessel was developed for fishing in the Baltic Sea. The vessel was tested with respect to its exploitation and fishing capabilities. The ship is intended for research purposes but simultaneously can be utilized as a typical fishing vessel on the Baltic Sea. Construction and exploitation parameters were presented in this text.
  • Dobryakova, Larisa; Ochin, Evgeny (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    In computing, the Least Significant Bit (LSB) is the bit position in a binary integer giving the units value, that is, determining whether the number is even or odd. We do not use this format. In conventional Intel bit ordering, the Most Significant Bit (MSB) is numbered 7 and the least significant bit (LSB) is numbered 0: 27 (MSB) 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 (LSB) D = d7 d6 d5 d4 d3 d2 d1 d0 For example, if on the record of number D = 131 = 10000011 we invert the MSB = 1 into MSB = 0, then obtain D = 00000011 = 3, but if we invert LSB = 1 into LSB = 0, then distortions are considerably fewer: D = 10000010 = 130. It is common to assign each bit a position number, ranging from zero to N – 1, where N is the number of bits in the binary representation used. Normally, this is simply the exponent for the corresponding bit weight in base-2 (such as in 27, 26, …, 21, 20). In this article to reduce the stego-errors we use a pair of numbers D1 and D2 and a pair of corresponding LSB d1,0 and d2,0.
  • Korostil, Jurii (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    In this work is developed method of evaluation safety level, which decreases with floating intensity functioning during technical object. Factors, condition such changes were reviewed. Basing on proposed methodic of detection of various types of risks exists possibility to form constructive algorithms of evaluation of safety level, which allows forming adequate danger counteraction means. One of basic factors, representing dangers, is malfunctions, appearing on technical object.
  • Szozda, Zbigniew; Czyżowicz, Dominika; Kałkowska, Elwira; Raciborska, Pola; Raczkowska, Julia; Skowronek, Monika (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    The paper presents the outcome of the research that has been completed recently at the Faculty of Navigation (FoN); Maritime University of Szczecin, Poland. The aim of the research is to show the maritime society what female students – future maritime women – think about studying the navigation and future work at sea. The research has been done by a group of female students – prospective seafarers. It is based on a questionnaire directed to fellow female students which contains 29 questions concerning the motivation for commencing the study in the field of maritime navigation, aspirations, fears and obstacles faced by female seafarers related to present study,internship onboard seagoing ships and future work. 128 female students responded to the questionnaire. The answers have been gathered into groups of interest. The findings are presented in terms of diagrams and comments. The paper contains valuable information that may be used by maritime universities, ship owners and other potential employers of maritime female students – in particular maritime policy makers. One of the interesting findings is that 84% of the female students declare they would choose the same field of study having experience (including seagoing intership) gained so far. The paper presents also the change of the number of female students at FoN in the last 10 years. It is the sign of relatively high interest of young women in maritime navigation in Poland – the country that is one of the biggest suppliers of officers for seagoing ships.
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Gibuła, Marek; Piotrowski, Tadeusz; Wolski, Tomasz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2014)
    The article deals with the problem of ship’s ocean route programming. For masters during planning the ocean most convenient route lots of factors are very important such as among others: current, forecast weather, criteria and restriction, speed and fuel characteristic of ships on waves and wind and so on. These elements when are properly identify and adopted allow the master for making an effective ship’s course and speed decision. The aim of research is to show how the SPOS system is treated during the ocean’s ship route. 39 captains of PŻM ships during the year of 2014 answered on 9 questions of questionnaire which were concerned the degree of utilization of SPOS (Ship Performance Optimization System) during the operation of their ships. All the masters confirmed that they use of SPOS system as a browser weather, while only 25.6% of masters confirmed that they also use the SPOS system as a tool in planning the route. They also repeatedly pointed out, however, that SPOS has some of limitations such as not limited information about ice cover or tropical cyclones, etc. In conclusion, it can be assess that the SPOS system is satisfactorily used on ships as a browser forecast, but does not work well in planning the trip by navigators.

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