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36.2 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, no. 36 / 2013



 

Recent Submissions

  • Herdzik, Jerzy (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    It was presented the problems of configuration choice of the power system and the propulsion system for offshore support vessels during the design process. It becomes more complicated when the vessel ought to have the dynamic positioning system. Due to long term engine work on low loads (idling) during station keeping process or dynamic positioning process and possible quick and heavy changes of power demand for the industry part there is an important problem for the correct choice of the components of power system configuration. There are possible three types of propulsion: Diesel mechanical (DM), Diesel electrical (DE) and hybrid (HP). The choice has an influence on many parameters: the specific fuel consumption, the propulsion and total efficiency, the costs of vessel’s operation. Some of those problems were presented.
  • Łosiewicz, Zbigniew; Kamiński, Włodzimierz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    Lube oil is applied in a number of its functional solutions for modern engines. Therefore, when application changes are implemented, simultaneously, the existing diagnostic methods should be improved. The authors have attempted to analyze the existing trends of lube oil application as a diagnostic tool and have proposed their solution.
  • Jasiewicz, Robert (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    The article presents analysis of the influence of selected methods alongside with devices applied to process oil waste from engine power room plants on the changes in oil waste morphology in order to improve burning conditions in auxiliary boilers. Study results facilitated the choice of the most favourable method, in view of environmental protection, of preparing oil waste to burn so that the waste is transformed into fuel for auxiliary boilers on the ship. Burning oil waste entails changes in its morphology, therefore, measurements of toxic emissions of CO and NOx have been conducted for each of the different processing methods.
  • Mąka, Marcin; Dramski, Mariusz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    This paper presents one of the approaches to solve the collision problem in restricted area for two moving objects using artificial intelligence (SACO algorithm). Although AI should be used only when the classic methods fail, a simple comparison between them is very interesting. As we know the main task of navigation is to conduct safely an object from the point of departure to destination. This problem does not seem easy, especially if we consider the movement in restricted areas such narrow passages, ports etc.
  • Karganov, Sergey A. (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    This article provides a list of errors methodology national income to fulfill international standards: the system of national accounting (SNA-93), the European System of Accounts (ESA-95) and the updated version of the SNA-93 – SNA 2008. On the example of the Russian Federation published statistics showing the absolute and relative size of distortions calculated values of national income as used in the calculations above regulations. The recommendations for changes in the methodology of calculating the national income and other macroeconomic indicators in order to monitor the effectiveness of national economic development and improve the objectivity of international comparisons of macroeconomic indicators.
  • Miller, Anna; Rybczak, Monika (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    Thrust allocation system combines the work of an automatic control system with the ships actuators. On the basis of values of transversal and longitudinal forces and yaw moment determined by the regulator, it specifies commands for the individual thrusters located on board. A modified power distribution system, which takes into account the efficient work of a main engine propeller, is presented. During the research computer simulations were made on the basis of a modified and an unmodified thrust allocation system working with an LMI controller and a mathematical model of a training tanker. “Proposed method” of power distribution results in more efficient work of the controller and guarantees faster determination of the fixed velocity value.
  • Kaszycki, Leszek (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    The paper demonstrates the possibility of synthesis of basic models of control plants with use of programmable controller. Selected models of plants were synthesized basing on standard functional blocks and arithmetic of integer type. Also was presented an application of Versa Max type controller in synthesis of discrete models of oscillatory and inertial blocks.
  • Młynarczak, Andrzej (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    The marine Diesel engines cooling systems and its elements were changing similarly to engines construction. Evolution of the cooling systems tends to reduce sea water pipelines inside engine room. Application of a central cooling system with box coolers completely eliminates sea water pipelines from engine room. Now that solution is rarely used on ships. It can be met on smaller ships, whose power output usually does not exceed 5000 kW, for example: tugs, dredgers, barges, supply vessels, fishing vessels, ferries, cargo freighters, reefers, ice breakers, carriers, etc. – operating inland, as well as in open sea navigation. The article presents an example of practical application of the central cooling system with box coolers on the tug running in Gdynia harbour. In author’s opinion, central cooling system with box coolers has a chance to spread out on bigger ships in the future. It will mainly depend on efficiency and reliability of box coolers secure systems. These systems ought to ensure correct operation of a cooling system between ship class dry-dockings. The box coolers used on the presented harbour tug are secured by ICAF system. The article presents also a proposition of solution to the cooling system with box coolers for merchant ship with power output higher up 5000 kW and advantages (disadvantages) of that solution.
  • Kizielewicz, Joanna (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    The main objective of the research is to assess the state of development of cruise ship tourism in the Mediterranean. The article also presents main homeports and ports of call and shows the most important cruise shipowners in the Mediterranean. Moreover, there are analyzed available stat istical data regarding cruise passengers in the Mediterranean and discussed a few examples of properly prepared port infrastructure for handling cruise ships on the example of ports in: Barcelona, Dubrovnik and Valleta (Malta). The research was realized using a method of desk research, a critical and comparative analysis of available statistical reports and publications and also other scientific materials.
  • Mou, Jun-min; Tang, Guang-hui; Yue, Hao Rong and Xuan; Rong, Hao (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    The ridge regression is presented for identify manoeuvring indices in Nomoto’s model, and the result indicates that the method is robust and does not rely on initial estimation. For selecting appropriate AIS data for manoeuvring indices predicting, a frequency domain identification method is presented.
  • Klyus, Oleh; Klyus, Igor (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    The paper presents some Diesel direct engines with fuel injectors with preliminary fuel catalytic and turbulizing treatment. In research works Diesel fuel and mixture with seawater 1.2–2.5% were used.
  • Naus, Krzysztof; Wąż, Mariusz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    This article presents the concept of algorithm A* functioning in a navigation system equipped with electronic navigational chart for autonomous planning the shortest and safest route crossing an offshore unmanned vehicle “Edredon”. The first part describes the general technical architecture and functionality of the vehicle's navigation system. In the second part shows in detail the modules of the system responsible for the planning of the road and how to implement them in the A* algorithm. The third part describes the proper operation of testing whether the A* algorithm in the navigation system, while the task of planning the route of the autonomous vehicle. Final part is a discussion of the results obtained from tests carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of the A* algorithm for route planning in autonomous navigation systems.
  • Klyus, Oleh; Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys; Mavzeika, Marius (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    The paper presents some results of droplet distribution in an atomized jet with Diesel fuel and mixture Diesel oil and bio components
  • Nienartowicz, Bogdan (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    The contemporary shipping technics wide applies the systems electromagnetic with the shaft -generator. The simulating investigations of transitory processes electromagnetic in such system need the complex model mathematical study, describing the dynamics of objects in him contained. The following article is the first part of the final description of the mathematical model of the shipping system electromagnetics with the shaft-generator. The paper describes external conditions, which can influencing on the course of electromagnetic processes in the systems and there is giving the proposed mathematical model of the Shipping Main Engine as the drive of the Shaft-Generator.
  • Krause, Paweł; Klyus, Oleh (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    At Maritime University of Szczecin there are carried out research works concerning utilization of biofuels on fishing vessels. There are a lot of information about relations between atomization and fuel combustion. Initial works also indicates correlation of surface tension with atomization. This article presents results of experimental investigation of droplets distribution after determination of fuel oil surface tension. Relation between atomization quality and surface tension are analyzed. Distillate fuel oil, rapeseed oil and 10% rapeseed mixture with distillate fuel oil were used as a fuel.
  • Nienartowicz, Bogdan (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    On the contemporary ships wide applies the systems electromagnetic with the shaft-generator. The simulating investigations of the dynamics of the electromagnetic transitory processes in such system need the complex model mathematical study, describing the dynamics of objects in him contained. The following article is the next part of the final description of the mathematical model of the shipping system electromagnetics with the shaft-generator. The paper describes external conditions, which can influencing on the course of electromagnetic processes in the systems and there is giving exit principles of the description of the electromagnetic transitory processes in synchronous electric mashine, which is working as the shaft-generator (PW).
  • Ochin, Evgeny; Lemieszewski, Łukasz; Luszknikov, Eugeniusz; Dobryakova, Larisa (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    Satellite navigation systems are widely used in navigation for precise trajectory determination of transport equipment. In this article mathematical models and algorithms have been developed to solve the problems of precision and safety of satellite navigation. One of the problems is spoofing (substitution) – a situation in which a system (hardware, software, etc.) successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data system and performs illegal actions. What is considered in the paper is spoofing detection algorithm based on the analysis of a civil satellite signal generated by the two receivers but instead a fully functional Spoofer GNSS signal repeater was used. This work is intended to equip GNSS users and receiver manufacturers with authentication methods that are effective against unsophisticated spoofing attacks. The work also serves to refine the civilian spoofing threat assessment by demonstrating the challenges involved in mounting a spoofing attack.
  • Praczyk, Tomasz; Szymak, Piotr; Milewski, Stanisław (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    The article deals with the problem of variability of spatial orientation and the position of the ship gun in time and the impact of this variability on the gun accuracy. In the paper three approaches to this problem are presented. Moreover, the conception of research is presented, which is aimed at verifying each of the approaches and selecting the solution that will guarantee the highest effectiveness of the gun.
  • Sawicka, Małgorzata; Szczepanek, Marcin (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    Due to the lack of legislation specifically referring to the energy efficiency of ships, the following acts and recommendations, which shall be referred to during preparation and conducting the energy efficiency assessment of fishing vessels, have been recalled and briefly characterized in this paper.
  • Sokołowska, Sylwia; Marcjan, Krzysztof; Gralak, Rafał (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    This paper presents simulation analysis of vessels approaching and vessels departuring from the port of Szczecin and Police focusing on the encounters between two vessels. The analysis parameters such as length and draft were examined. Particular attention was paid to the restricted sections of the seaway between Zalew Szczeciński and Basen G\'orniczy. The results of these simulation trials and the resulting analysis can be helpful while updating port regulations and for the assessment of the traffic density and the capacity of the waterway.
  • Tuński, Tomasz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    New ways of the long term operation of low-speed long-stroke marine Diesel engines such as “Slow Steaming” and “Super Slow Steaming” caused disturbances in operation of waste heat recovery systems from main engines exhaust gases. The advancement of the control systems of the water level in smoke-tube exhaust gas boiler created a possibility to change that parameter during operation of the “main engine – exhaust gas boiler” system. It was made use of such a feature to develop a system of readjustment of water level in the smoke-tube boiler to main engine load. However, introduced methods were saddled with simplifications that can bring in additional disturbances in operation of the boiler feed water systems. The bellow paper deals with influence of the ambient condition of the smoke-tube waste heat boiler on the water level indication in the boiler.
  • Valishin, Alexander (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    The article contains results development of a methodology for determining the parameters of vibration cylinder liners marine Diesel engines with complex action of shock loading piston during the relining rod ripple operating pressure in the cylinder.
  • Zeńczak, Wojciech (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    During their stay in harbours the ships generate the electric energy and heat for their needs most frequently by use of their own power and boiler plants through Diesel generating sets and oil fired boiler. The operation of this machinery causes the toxic compound emission to the atmosphere. In this article the possibilities are presented of limiting this emission through such activities as supplying the ship with the energy from the shore power network, from barge-situated power plant provided with the Diesel generating sets supplied with LNG, and in case of the boiler plant through the application of the liquid or solid biofuel. There are also presented some selected results of the simplified comparative analysis of the emission levels with the various methods of generating the electric energy and heat during ship’s stay in harbour.
  • Zwolan, Piotr; Czaplewski, Krzysztof (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    The paper describes a mean of using vessel’s manoeuvring parameters recorded in real conditions for the purpose of analysing the environment influence on ship’s behaviour. This information has also been used to conduct a comparative analysis of a real vessel and its simulation model in the data base of a navigationmanoeuvring simulator. The measurements were taken on an unrestricted sea area so as to eliminate the impact of developed sites on wind field. The research was conducted in the region of the North Sea and Baltic Sea.
  • Adamkiewicz, Andrzej; Fydrych, Janusz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    Searching for a safe ship, this paper presents operational strategies which are used for ship power system maintenance, conditions for their realization have been shown. The procedure of risk analysis has been decomposed and its stages have been discussed. Methods of risk evaluation and methods of ship power system threat identification have been analyzed. The choice of risk evaluation method has been made for the management of maintenance of elements of the system taking into account good maritime practice, ICM code, regulations of classification societies and international maritime organizations. Studies on possibilities of extending operational time of the engine from the main power system using risk analysis with the Expert Method have been presented. On the basis of the results of studies, applicability of the Expert Method for risk analysis on ships has been shown.
  • Bejger, Artur; Piasecki, Tomasz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    The article presents selected technical issues relating to drilling performed by a drillship, one type of drilling rigs. Basic problems encountered in the main function of such rigs − drilling a well − are failures of mud pumps. The authors investigate these pumps in operational conditions, aiming at development of a system for monitoring the technical condition of these pumps. Work on a diagnostic system is in progress that will permit to predict the condition of mud pump valves well in advance.
  • Borkowski, Tadeusz; Nicewicz, Grzegorz; Tarnapowicz, Dariusz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    Diesel main and auxiliary engines are main sources of air pollution from ships mooring in ports. Auxiliary engines are used in electrical grids that are essential for the operation of a ship. In many reports and academic publications the estimated amount of exhaust emission, calculated by means of the assumed marine auxiliary engine load factor, is used in order to assess the operation of marine power plants with respect to environmental protection. The factors influencing the marine auxiliary engine load factors are: the auxiliary engine excess power versus generator power and generator efficiency. However, these factors are rarely taken into account. In the present paper the importance of engine excess power and the efficiency of marine generating sets for the evaluation of real auxiliary engines load and exhaust emission related to it is discussed. Besides, the results of in-service experience of exhaust emission from marine auxiliary engines on the example of Ro-Pax vessel are presented.
  • Czaplewski, Krzysztof; Kopacz, Zdzisław; Morgaś, Wacław (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    From time immemorial, the main type of human activity at sea was transport of goods, then fishery, exploration of overseas territories, combating enemy’s vessels etc. The twentieth century visualized clearly also a military activity, whereas the latter part of the century also an industrial one on the continental shelves. Progress in these fields was the leading motive power considerably increasing human activity at sea beyond transport. The paper shows results of research work on designing of human activity at sea in the navigational simulators environment. These research works have been conducted in Institute of Navigation and Hydrography Polish Naval Academy.
  • Dobryakova, Larisa; Lemieszewski, Łukasz; Ochin, Evgeny (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    The article discusses the new algorithms for detect of GNSS-spoofing based on a comparison of the pseudorange measurements results of navigation satellites and calculate the coordinates of a pair of GNSSreceivers in two modes: the normal GNSS-navigation and mode of the spoofing. The theoretical studies have shown that a single-antenna mode spoofing under certain conditions gives us the same measured pseudoranges. The calculated distance between the two antennas of GNSS-receivers gives us zero. In a mode of the normal GNSS-navigation computed distance between the antennas of the two GNSS-receivers exceeds the true distance to the tens of meters. These differences are used as the basic detection spoofing parameters.
  • Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys; Lus, Tomasz; Mavzeika, Marius; Klyus, Oleh; Mažeika, Marius (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    The article presents bench test results of a DI (60 kW) Diesel engine D-243 operating on class 2 Diesel fuel (DF) as baseline fuel and its 5vol%, 10vol% and 15vol% blends with anhydrous ethanol. The purpose of the research was to investigate the effect of the ethanol addition to Diesel fuel on the autoignition delay, combustion, engine performance efficiency and emissions of the exhaust. The results of engine operation on ethanol- Diesel blends are compared with baseline parameters of normal Diesel running at full (100%) load and rated 2200 rpm speed.
  • Gawdzińska, Katarzyna; Nagolska, Dorota; Kochmańska, Agnieszka (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    Quality of composite castings with infiltration reinforcement is dependent on many various factors. Technological parameters of the saturation process, manufacturing methods and quality of components are considered as the basic ones. During the recycling process of composite materials, the basic component that is being reclaimed is the metal matrix. The main aim of this paper is an evaluation of chemical composition and microstructure of the recovered metal matrix material. In the first stage, influence of preparation of liquid matrix metal is analyzed, with particular attention paid to its purity, degree of degassing and overheating, as well as an influence of the reinforcing material type on the final structure of composites obtained in the process of vacuum saturation. Specific of the structure and flaws occurring in such materials are of the particular concern here, as they are decisive for the methods of quality evaluation of these materials. Manufactured composite’s castings are subjected to the recycling process by a melting of the metal matrix on the second stage. The metal obtained in this way is analyzed regarding impurities ccurring in its volume and, simultaneously, a comparison of evaluation methods of traditional metal alloys and metal composite castings is performed.
  • Lushnikov, Evgeny M.; Pleskacz, Krzysztof (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2013)
    The article presents the results of compliance with effects of impact wave course and the resulting orbital motions on the accuracy of the gyrocompass.

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