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30 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, no. 30 / 2012



 

Recent Submissions

  • Wołejsza, Piotr (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The accuracy of calculating the parameters of another vessel movement and the consequent accuracy of determined ship encounter parameters is of key importance for collision avoidance and navigational safety. It is also essential to promptly detect a manoeuvre of another vessel, or target, especially where such manoeuvre cannot be detected by other methods, e.g. due to restricted visibility. Therefore, research in this field aims at improvement of radar target tracking methods
  • Witkowska, Anna; Śmierzchalski, Roman (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The article presents various configurations of nonlinear ship course controllers. The controllers were designed based on backstepping method, the PD and sliding mode control. The controller versions at the design stage take into account the dynamic properties of the steering gear. A simplified simulation model of the B-481 type vessel, including wave and wind effects, was applied to simulate the control algorithm by using time domain analysis. The results of computer simulations have shown the advantages of control algorithms taking into account the dynamics of steering gear such as the increasing the economic efficiency of system operation, the reducing rudder activity and increasing the average speed of the vessel during the voyage
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Wolski, Tomasz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The paper presents the influence of the tsunami on the safety of the shipping and seaports. The analysis based on the tsunami from 11 March 2011 on Japanese islands and coasts of Pacific. The paper describes the destruction caused by tsunami waves, both in port and coastal infrastructure. A list of casualties in dry bulk vessels and boats in Japan and in the U.S. coastis presented. Recommendations for ships with the warnings and messages before the tsunami are identifie
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    W artykule zaprezentowano łączne oddziaływanie falowania i wiatru na prędkość statku. Teoretycznie wydzielono wpływ wiatru na statek, uwzględniając odpowiednie prędkości i kierunki wiatru. Większy wpływ na ogólne straty prędkości statku przypisano falowaniu. Określenie oddzielnego wpływu wiatru i falowania adoptowano do programu obliczeniowego SPOS
  • Stefanowski, Andrzej; Zwierzewicz, Zenon (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    This paper presents observations and remarks on the work of ship's steering gear controlled by the autopilot in high seas. Attention is drawn to the insufficient power of steering gear operated by the autopilot in high waves and the consequent possibility of overloading and damage to the gear, creating a threat to the ship. Standard safeguards against damage are discussed. It is suggested that the alarm system should be extended to indicate the load of steering gears. The authors propose a method for assessment of the steering gear load by using a signal that is a nonlinear function of the actual rudder angle, based on the solution used in TS-type autopilot adaptation blocks. The results of computer simulations to obtain such signals for autopilot-controlled ship movement in irregular waves (sea state ranging from 3 to 6) are presented. The conclusion reached is that the signal can be used to assess the steering gear load, which may contribute to increasing ship’s safety in high sea states
  • Ushkarenko, A.O. (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    A general characteristic of power fluctuation as the casual discrete phenomena in marine power plants have been considered. The approach to processing of the statistical information necessary for a substantiation of a technique of voltage failures’ statistical research is offered. The software for the statistical analysis of processes power change and definition of a power station operating mode are developed;Ryabenkiy, V.M
  • Rajewski, Przemysław (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    A significant number of failures and accidents of Polish fishing vessels operating in the Baltic Sea was the impetus to examine their sources. It was found that one of the important factors causing the failure is poor condition of the fuel systems and inappropriate fishing vessels to be operated. Typical fuel installations operated on Polish fishing vessels were discussed. The methodology of sampling and testing of samples of fuel from fishing vessels to assess its fuel quality has been presented, as well as tests results
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Malujda, Rafał (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The correct analysis and assessment of navigational situation, taking into account the existing Collision Regulations, provides a basis for making the right decisions on a seagoing vessel. Such basis is important for ensuring the safety of navigation in different, often complex, situations. The interpretation of the relevant rules is therefore of key importance. They contain generalizations arising from a multitude of possible scenarios at sea. The consequence of this is imprecision hindering interpretation of the rules. This is of particular concern in the implementation of those rules in navigational information systems and decision support systems. This paper provides a preliminary analysis, based on practical examples, of the applicability of fuzzy logic as a tool for the algorithm-based interpretation of International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea (COLREGs). The COLREGs general concept shall be presented with an indication of the imprecision of rules in selected areas. For this purpose, the current methods of legal interpretation shall be presented and applied. This will allow to classify the COLREGs into two groups: crisp and imprecise. The real collision case shall be presented and discussed. The conducted preliminary considerations will help determine initially whether the incorporation of the principles of fuzzy logic in the law may facilitate interpretation of legal provisions by setting acceptable boundaries of such interpretation, and thus also the implementation of provisions in the navigational decision support systems
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Wołejsza, Piotr; Borkowski, Piotr (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    This article presents the NAVDEC, a navigational decision support system on a sea-going vessel. The system, developed at the Maritime University of Szczecin, is compared with other systems of this type worldwide. New functionalities of the NAVDEC are highlighted, as they may significantly contribute to the enhancement of navigational safety. As there has always been a growing interest in implementing research results into practical use, the authors describe their experience in transferring new technology to industry
  • Ochin, Evgeny; Dobryakova, Larisa; Lemieszewski, Łukasz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Many civil GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) applications need secure, assured information for asset tracking, fleet management and the like. But there is also a growing demand for geosecurity location- -based services. Unfortunately, GNSS is vulnerable to malicious intrusion and spoofing. How can users be sure that the information they receive is authentic? Spoofing is the transmission of matched-GNSS-signal- -structure interference in an attempt to commandeer the tracking loops of a victim receiver and thereby manipulate the receiver’s timing or navigation solution. A spoofer can transmit its counterfeit signals from a stand-off distance of several hundred meters, or it can be co-located with its victim. Spoofing attacks can be classified as simple, intermediate, or sophisticated in terms of their effectiveness and subtlety. In an intermediate spoofing attack, a spoofer synchronizes its counterfeit signals with the authentic GNSS signals, so they are code-phase-aligned at the target receiver. In this paper, authors consider the antispoofing algorithms based on finding statistical anomalies in the basic parameters of the satellite signals. At the stage of learning, the system of antispoofing explores the statistical properties of signals and at the phase of spoofing detection, the system used thresholds characteristics of statistical anomalies. The excess of the threshold characteristics provides a basis for probabilistic decision on the presence of spoofing
  • Medyna, Piotr; Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    This paper presents sources of weather information necessary and useful when programming the ship route. Particular attention was given for publicly accessible information. Available data was categorized by groups of validity. The localization and the structure of weather data such as resolution, coverage, limitations, forecast time, etc. were described. The principles of naming the files containing the selected weather data in GRIB (gridded binary) format were presente
  • Magaj, Janusz; Mąka, Marcin (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The problem of using data from an electronic navigational chart meeting the S-57 standard for applications in the navigational decision support systems is dealt with. The authors consider problems of the selection and transformation of data used in the process of navigational situation analysis. The method of data acquisition and selection along with some methods of data presentation are described and compared. The operation of developed algorithms is discussed in relation to a selected fragment of an electronic chart. Advantages and disadvantages of various solutions are indicate
  • Luft, Mirosław; Olszowiec, Paweł (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The paper presents an analysis of the energy balance and selected processes accompanying the IC engine working from the point of view of improving its efficiency. The article presents an analysis of the losses accompanying the work of the IC engine of the latest generations, as well as discusses efficiency of the systems improving performance of the above mentioned units. The systems described and suggested solutions are based on utilization of the IC engine losses as the source of their functioning. Besides, the structures of electrical energy management on board of a modern automobile are outlined and the concept of the distribution and supervision of electrical energy originating from the turbogenerator located in the exhaust system of the piston engine is proposed. Finally, an innovative solution is put forward of how to solve the problem of eclectic energy distribution and management of the system based on the use of kinetic energy of the exhaust gas passing through the IC engine exhaust system
  • Śmierzchalski, Roman; Kuczkowski, Łukasz; Kolendo, Piotr; Jaworski, Bartosz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    This paper presents the use of mean crossover genetic operator for path planning using evolutionary algorithm for collision avoidance on sea. Mean crossover ensures widening of the possible solutions’ set that can be achieved in comparison to exchange crossover variant. The research shown, that the mean crossover allows to achieve results independent from the initial generation and quicker transition of the algorithm from the exploration to the exploitation phase. New version of the algorithm allows for an effective solution search for the problem of a collision scenario on sea
  • Luft, Mirosław; Jawor, Jakub; Łukasik, Zbigniew; Szychta, Elżbieta (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Reverse Engineering (RE), in particular Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM), is increasingly used in construction, maintenance and refurbishment of vessels. Over the last few years, it can observe increasing interest in the small size scanning instruments which operational characteristics will be similar to those station ones. In this way, hand-held scanning devices based on laser were developed. In this article, authors would like to present what role non-contact 3D laser scanners in quality control, project design and creation of new technical documentation in the form of CAD drawings. Authors would also like to propose a solution that would simplify the whole process of scanning and spared time and money. The solution is to move the entire infrastructure and software in the cloud computing and connecting to it using a thin client which then would be connected to the scanning device
  • Sokołowska, Sylwia; Gucma, Lucjan (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The paper presents an analysis of vessels entering the port of Szczecin in 2011 in terms of their size. The analysis comprises such ship parameters as length, breadth and draught. Focus has been put on those ships that require special entrance permission from Harbour Master. The analysis results can be useful in modeling vessel traffic streams and the assessment of traffic intensity on a waterway
  • Gucma, Stanisław (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The article describes the method of the determination of optimal parameters of the approach channels leading to the outer port in Świnoujście assuring safe navigation of LNG tankers of Q-flex type. The method used was specially developed for optimized design of waterway systems. Conditions of safe vessel operations within the system were define
  • Siódmiak, Szymon; Górtowska, Marzena; Górtowski, Paweł (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Effective maritime rescue bases on both surface units and aviation. The different types of units are selectively chosen according to their performances. The main operational limitations of a particular unit are weather conditions and vehicle characteristics. In addition to standard units, for purposes of search and rescue, a WIG craft is also applicable. The craft uses so called Ground Effect, therefore is characterized by relatively high speed and low fuel consumption. The article attempts to determine the statistical operational effectiveness of different search and rescue units. The analysis is based on data on wind force and direction, in the period from May to October, in the west coastal zone of Poland. The results of the study allow to compare operational effectiveness of various rescue units. The findings can be used to support planning of search and rescue forces’ dislocation and their efficient use
  • Girtler, Jerzy (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The paper rises the issue of a possibility to consider some achievements of the quantum mechanics in the diagnostics of marine energy machines and devices. It has been shown that the observations from the quantum mechanics and technical diagnostics obtained in the knowledge field of the empirical research are convergent. The need has been justified as for empirical research to make not only calculations of errors, but also to determine the uncertainty of test results (measurements) and identify whether they are mainly the result of inaccuracy of energy machines / devices as the research objects – or inaccuracy of the measuring technique (measuring methods and means). Moreover, the possibility of using mathematical statistics has been presented for describing the results of the studies connected with determining the instantaneous values of the measured quantities. It has been shown at the same time the necessity for the empirical research of a clear definition of the instantaneous value characterized by two coordinates: a measured value of a physical quantity and a value of time which the measured value of the physical quantity is assigned to
  • Czaplewski, Krzysztof; Czaplewski, Bartosz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    In order to maintain a high level of security in areas where vessel traffic services operate, there is a great use of industrial cameras, which transmit information to the VTS controllers. Two very important elements of the video image transmission are speed and confidentiality of the transmitted data. Currently, one of the major problems in front of such systems is to choose an appropriate method for safe image transmission that meets the requirements of speed and confidentiality. There is the possibility of using the tools of computer science known as fingerprints. There are two ways to protect multimedia copyright. First way is to encrypt the data. Encryption provides that only privileged receivers with correct decryption keys will be able to decrypt information. Unfortunately, encryption isn’t sufficient protection, because after decryption, privileged user may easily violate copyright by sharing decrypted data with public. Second way is called a digital fingerprinting, which rely on embedding of some additional binary sequence into image. This sequence, called a fingerprint, is unique for each receiver and it’s unnoticeable for the human eye. With fingerprinting there is a possibility of further analysis of a intercepted copy which is suspected of being illegally shared. The paper presents the theoretical basis for the use of fingerprinting methods to protect the media sent in VTS systems, as well as a description of the most promising methods, in terms of safety and cost, called Joint Fingerprinting and Decryption methods. Approach proposed by the authors can enhance the security of the video image transmission in VTS systems
  • Brzózka, Jerzy (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The paper presents a designing procedure of controllers in the structure of tracking model (Model Following Control, MFC) for nonlinear model of a ship as an object of the course angle control. In the article feedback linearization method for known nonlinearity in the input-output channel of plant has been used. Ideal linearization in the classical control system occurs only when the design nonlinearity of the model and the object are identical. Therefore, the article proposes the use of MFC structure, which is able to compensate for differences of non-linear characteristics of the process and model
  • Breitsprecher, Marcin (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The article presents the problem of knowledge representation contained in COLREGS for its use in navigation information systems. The idea of knowledge and representation of knowledge was discussed. A comparison of selected methods of knowledge representation was made and possibility of their use to represent the COLREGS rules was considered. By using selected COLREGS rule and presented methods of knowledge representation, functionality of the knowledge base was analyze
  • Banaś, Paweł (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Automatic communication between computer systems on board and ashore is a necessity. At this stage it is limited to simple exchange of information – the data transmitted in the messages. It is expected that it will take the more complex form soon, allowing the dialogue, the transmission of intentions and conducting negotiations. To make it possible, it is necessary to build suitable ontology, describing the processes of communication at sea. To apply this ontology in information systems it is necessary to present it in a proper representation. This paper presents a method of generating a representation in form of XML-Schema based on the ontology built with the use of Protégé program
  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Wielgosz, Mirosław (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The ship domain is one of the criteria proposed for the safety of ships in restricted areas. Its shape is influenced by many factors. The paper presents the results of ship domain determination in a restricted area. The influence of ship speed on the shape and size of the domain was examined. The method of determining ship domain based on ship traces and partial domains was characterized. The results have been presented and conclusions formulate
  • Wołejsza, Piotr; Magaj, Janusz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The determination of sailing ship’s behavior accounting for the Collision Regulations plays an essential part in the choice of a decision procedure and the verification of its effect in navigational decision support systems. One of the basic aims of such systems is to provide procedures defining the direction of course alterations and/or speed accounting for the regulations in force. There are a number of publications on the subject. Based on the performed analysis of the collision regulations and on navigators’ and sailors’ knowledge the authors have developed an anti-collision algorithm for close quarters situations in the open sea in good visibility
  • Śmierzchalski, Roman (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The article presents the problem of automation of ship’s control. This paper will discuss the basic tasks of the track ship control, collision avoidance and automatic dynamic positioning. The following subjects will be presented: the general structure of the ship's control, methods and control algorithms for the above mentioned tasks
  • Artyszuk, Jarosław (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The paper presents basic principles of a ships nondimensional trajectory definition for arbitrary manoeuvres by means of drift angle and nondimensional yaw velocity. This enables faster and better tuning of mathematical model of ship manoeuvring motions against the provided full scale sea maneouvring trials usually in a form of position trajectories – since it is known the governing, basic factors behind the trajectory. A special focus has been applied to the standard turning circle test

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