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29 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, no. 29 / 2012



 

Recent Submissions

  • Łozowicka, Dorota (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    This article aims to present the principles of the method of genetic algorithms and examples of the use of this method for solving problems related to proper organization of evacuation both from ships and land buildings. The paper also proposes the use of genetic algorithms to search for the optimal distribution of evacuation. The problem of course was brought to the task of evacuation transport, which is so designated evacuation routes for different groups of people to get the shortest possible evacuation time. Application of genetic algorithms will determine the most preferred target as passengers from the premises where they are located at the start of the evacuation to the assembly. Describes how to encode the problem in the genetic algorithm and a simple calculation shows the distribution of escape routes and validate the assumed method of encoding
  • Pleskacz, Krzysztof; Lushnikov, Evgeny M (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The article presents a method to determine the gyro correction by utilizing parallel lines used in radar, taking into account the advantages of this method, which are the convenience and ease of use. The accuracy of the method according to the geographical and technical factors was analyzed. The mathematical calculation of the final results accuracy was presented. Situations in which it is recommended to use this method for determining gyrocompass corrections due to the high accuracy were describe
  • Pleskacz, Krzysztof; Lushnikov, Evgeny M (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The article presents the results of compliance with the provisions relating to the operation of magnetic compasses and gyrocompasses. The proper conducts of ship’s documents, related to this issue have been analyzed. The paper also presents proposals for action aimed at facilitating and improving the existing situation
  • Banachowicz, Andrzej; Wolski, Adam (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    In the general case measurements performed in navigation are those of position coordinates − points on the trajectory, and trajectory derivatives − speed vector and acceleration vector. Due to the occurrence of systematic and random errors, there is no full conformity of results obtained from measurements by various navigational instruments and systems in the mathematical model of the process of navigation, as well as in specific measurement models. This study attempts to compare trajectories, speeds and accelerations determined by different measurement tools (navigational equipment and systems). The results may be used in an analysis of measurement reliability and of the correct performance of navigational systems and equipment. A comparison of various sources of information also allows to detect and identify systematic errors, so that, consequently, mathematical models of specific phenomena and processes can be verifie
  • Behrendt, Cezary; Krause, Paweł (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Growing costs of ship operation and actions taken to reduce the emission of harmful components in exhaust gases make designers seek more effective methods of utilizing substantial amounts of waste energy in marine power plants. One such method leads to the steam turbogenerator. This machine to run, however, requires substantially greater amount of steam generated in the waste heat boiler (compared to steam demand for heat-ing purposes). It is possible to supply a sufficient amount of steam if the waste heat contained in exhausts and charge air of the main engine is fully utilized. This article analyzes the influence of some methods of using waste heat from exhaust gases and charge air on the amount of steam produced in the waste heat boiler. The analysis takes account of boundary conditions, such as steam pressure in the boiler and the minimum value of outlet gas after the boiler. The analysis is illustrated with examples of basic calculations for the waste heat boiler co-operating with a specific slow speed engine. Two variants of waste heat recovery installation solutions are considere
  • Burakovsky, Evgeny P; Burakovsky, Pavel E.; Burakovsky, Pavel E. (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The article concerns the improvement of engineering calculation and refinement of durability margins of ship hull plane elements. Main results had been collected through vast experiments on tin construction-like models and half natural size structures. Results allow the refinement of areas’ allocation of “flexible” and “rigid” links of plane elements under local span loading and function estimation of failure deflexion of plane of longitudinal rigidity, which is provided by the structure in the area of local deformation. Work results can be used to revise engineering calculations and refine the norms of defect survey. Wide usage of such survey norms can lead to ship repair time reduction and improve operational efficiency
  • Cepowski, Tomasz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The article describes a method of ship seakeeping characteristics modeling that are represented by descriptive variables. The research aimed at checking the possibility of using artificial neural networks for building models based on descriptive values of seakeeping properties and finally, developing design guidelines. The article reports an experiment of modeling a situation of shipping green water by a container vessel. The experiment verifies the theoretically adopted metho
  • Dramski, Mariusz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    In this paper, two different shortest path routing algorithms in respect of basic navigation problems are discussed. First of them is a “state of art” in computer science – well known Dijkstra algorithm. The second one is a method based on artificial intelligence – simplified ant colony optimization proposed originally by Marco Dorigo. Author used both ways to find an optimal / suboptimal route for a ship in a restricted area. Results showed the advantages and disadvantages of both algorithms in simple static navigation situations
  • Górtowska, Marzena (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The article addresses an issue of expansion of maritime rescue systems with new components which are Wing-In-Ground-Effect Crafts (WIG craft). Due to operational characteristic, use of phenomenon of ground effect, WIG crafts are extremely economical and achieve relatively high speeds. In addition, they possess also amphibious features. This represents a huge potential for participation in search and rescue actions. The article discusses the phenomenon of a ground effect and its operation performance benefits and limitations. The applications of the WIG craft for specific actions such as conducting search, medical transport, supply of equipment and crews, patrolling are specified. The article analyzes the Search Effort of the WIG craft and marine search unit SAR-1500, actually used on Polish coast. The study consists in determining the relationship between the altitude of the observer, his speed and search width. Next the calculation of available search effort is conducted. The results enable to compare the ability of different types of the patrol units
  • Gucma, Lucjan; Gucma, Maciej; Ochin, Evgeny; Dobryakova, Larisa (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The popularity of wireless technologies during the last decade has created a considerable expansion of wireless networks. Many researchers work now on the area of wireless resource planning and optimization. Optimization is considered as the main approach to designing and improving the performance of Wireless Local Area Networks Infrastructure of Seaports Security Systems. The presented models and algorithms enable flexible coverage planning and optimization of Wireless Network Infrastructure
  • Januszewski, Jacek (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Satellite Navigation Systems (SNSs), the GPS system in particular, were available to civilian users from the beginning. The first community interested was the maritime one, for both professional and recreational purposes. Marine navigation distinguishes between five major phases, among those the port approach and operation in restricted waters and the marine navigation in the port. SNSs, today the GPS system and its differential mode DGPS, and Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) as EGNOS and WAAS, provide a wide range of applications in both these phases, e.g. coupling SNS receivers with dedicated sensors installed on the ship’s bridge, e.g. AIS, aid in the berthing and docking of large vessels, by means of the position and the heading reference systems. In maritime restricted area, the SNS position accuracy can be decreased when the masking elevation angle causing by the obstacles is for the user on the ship greater than masking angle of observer’s receiver. This diminution depends on among other things the ship course, observer’s latitude, the height of the obstacle, the distance between the observer and the obstacle, here coast side. Additionally, the problem of availability of the integrity information to users and performances, and future use of the GLONASS system after modernization, Galileo and Compass systems actually under construction, new SBASs, the next DGPS and DGLONASS reference stations, and Eurofix with differential corrections to GPS including integrity messages in coastal navigation are described in the paper
  • Pietrek, Sławomir; Jasiński, Janusz; Krawczyk, Karolina (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Detecting fog over sea, especially in early stages of its development, is extremely important due to the threats it imposes on sea navigation. Measurement and observation network in the areas is very thin and limited to single drifting buoys and information provided irregularly by the crews of ships. For these reasons, fog detection by means of remote sensing methods becomes especially significant. The paper presents possibilities to detect fog developing in the most difficult to detect cases – in the air cooling at night time – when it is not possible to sense in the visible light and when the thermal contrast between the fog and the underlying surface is lower than the thermal resolution of the IR images. Analysis of differential and RGB composite images produced from results of observation of the same meteorological objects obtained in various spectral bands reveals features unobservable in each of the bands separately. Using the EUMETSAT recommendations, algorithms of creating RGB composite images were developed in the Department of Geographic Information Systems and applied to images for analysis
  • Klyus, Oleh (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    In the paper were presented some results of experimental works on increasing of effective and lowering of toxic parameters in Diesel engines. Possibility of receipt of this factors is using of fuel fumigation – as contact fuel with catalytic materials in a body of fuel injectors. The results of experimental works conferment of perspective this idea
  • Kobyliński, Lech (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Tanker casualties that happen from time to time in the world cause serious damage to environment with disastrous effects. In particular, casualties of tankers “Prestige”, “Erika” and “Nakhodka” where ships were seriously damaged, broken in the middle or separated into two parts showed that salvage operations in many cases were not effective. Such casualty in the Baltic Sea, that is closed area, may lead to the total destruction of the environment. The paper describes a proposed system of preventing marine environment pollution from damaged tankers. Problems related to towing of damaged tankers to the safe harbour or area, that consist an important element of the system, are discussed in more detail with reference to model tests of towing of damaged tanker performed at Iława Training and Research Centre for Ship Manoeuvrability
  • Korostil, Jurii (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Research of problem of general safety level determination of complicated technical object, affected by a number of negative factors of different nature, decreasing the safety level technological object were conducted. The general model for calculation current values safety level consists of basis genetic conversions. Due to use of genetic models to determine come components of safety value of technical object it is possible to calculate impact of various factors which determine change of main components of safety value. Due to use of service functions the relevant influence of factors of different nature can be described according to logic of those factors
  • Weintrit, Adam; Szpytko, Janusz; Krata, Przemysław (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The paper presents a proposal of a method for the computation of ship’s deck elevation at any time and location on-board. The need for such a computation results from an interaction between a ship and cargo being loaded or discharged by a gantry in port, in terms of heeling and rolling of the vessel. The main purpose of such modeling is the need for improvement of gantry control with regard to faster operations thanks to more accurate estimation of level and moment of cargo release from a gantry hook or spreader. The study may be the contribution to the development of gantry control systems in sea ports
  • Krystosik-Gromadzińska, Agata; Rogowski, Krzysztof (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Safety of navigation is a complex problem which consists of many aspects. Seagoing and the level of training contribute to one making the right decisions in accordance with the principles of conduct. Crew training takes place at sea, as well as in maritime training centres. The article describes the safety problems of a warship in the event of fires in various regions of the vessel, hull puncture and unsealing. The problems connected with the identification of damage, its types and methods and tools to repair it have been described. The simulator of damage control has been described and scenarios of events which can be simulated have been presented. One of the scenarios – fire in the engine room – has been chosen and the course of the training with the use of the HOMAR OPA (organization of operations against fire and water), simulator produced by The Autocomp company for the Navy Training Center in Ustka, has been described. The main subjects of trainings are connected with fire safety, fire simulation, fire fighting, hull damages, water and fire defence, investigating damages, warship survivability, repair works etc. The trainings with the use of the simulator include preparation procedures for removing the hull damage and equipment failures as part of the process of securing the proper equipment to fight with water and fires, development of methods for detecting the inflow of water and fire, preparation of procedures to fight with water and fire, training of the crew to fight fires and water. The OPA simulator has been developed on the basis of the latest computer technology, with the use of large-size projection on the screen in the form of a cylinder’s segment
  • Łukasik, Zbigniew; Kuśmińska-Fijałkowska, Aldona (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    In the result of the critical analysis execution of functioning trans-shipping terminals in the national forwarding system the identification JTI system was presented. It used to solve decision problems, and also it will improve the processes of the flow JTI through the trans-shipping terminal
  • Luft, Mirosław; Łukasik, Zbigniew; Szychta, Elżbieta; Cioć, Radosław; Pietruszczak, Daniel (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The paper presents the possibility of modelling transducers used in transport facilities using fractional calculus and analyses of the dynamic properties in terms of time and frequency for the measuring transducer with a seismic mass. Pointed out the benefits of fractional calculus in the description of the dynamics of transducers used in transportation facilities. Simulation studies were performed in the development environment of MATLAB\&Simulink
  • Lushnikov, Evgeny M. (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The problem of routine control of true courses from gyrocompass and from magnetic compass is presented. It is shown, that contemporary method of monitoring is not agree to science methods and is not agree to the intention of navigation safety. The reasons of this situation in aspect of history are analysed. The role of education at solution of this problem is exhibited. The problem is analysed at technical aspect, low aspect, moral aspect. The methods and means of resolving of the problem are presente
  • Pleskacz, Krzysztof; Lushnikov, Evgeny M (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The article presents the results of compliance with the provisions relating to the operation of magnetic compasses and gyrocompasses. The proper conducts of ship’s documents, related to this issue have been analyzed. The paper also presents proposals for action aimed at facilitating and improving the existing situation
  • Pleskacz, Krzysztof; Lushnikov, Evgeny M (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The article presents a method to determine the gyro correction by utilizing parallel lines used in radar, taking into account the advantages of this method, which are the convenience and ease of use. The accuracy of the method according to the geographical and technical factors was analyzed. The mathematical calculation of the final results accuracy was presented. Situations in which it is recommended to use this method for determining gyrocompass corrections due to the high accuracy were describe
  • Mąka, Marcin (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The problem considered in this article refers to such representation of data from an electronic navigational chart that fast and effective identification of areas meeting certain criteria, e.g. depths, will be possible. This is of importance in such processes as situation analysis and assessment or the determination of a safe trajectory of ship movement. The recurrent algorithm for area discretization herein presented makes use of the trapezoid mesh. Its properties and requirements, as well as the methodology of area discretization are presented. The results of an experiment based on that algorithm are describe
  • Mironiuk, Waldemar (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Research on damage stability and unsinkability is a valuable source of knowledge of behaving a ship while flooding its compartments. In the paper, a short description of accidents and damages of Polish warships is presented. The time when compartment is flooded (tf) and stability parameters are one of the key elements which have influence on a rescue action. The knowledge of the time mentioned is very important for a commanding officer making decisions while fighting for survival of the ship. To provide the information about the time tf a new method was designed. The method was tested experimentally and results of the tests are presented in the paper. In the experiments, the flooding process of compartments in a ship of the type 888 was simulated. The next part of research was carried out on the laboratory stand bed, where the flooding time of damaged compartment of warship model was measured. The results of the experiments can be a base to define general rules to make proper decisions during the process of damage control
  • Nienartowicz, Bogdan (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The electromagnetic systems with the shaft-generator are being widely used in marine engineering, nowadays. Simulating investigations of transitory electromagnetic processes in such system require complex mathematical model studies to describe properly the dynamics of the containing objects. The following article is the first part of the final description of the mathematical model of marine electromagnetic system with the shaft-generator. It contains both the discussion about external factors affecting the electromagnetic processes in such system and initial assumptions that should be met by the proposed mathematical model
  • Pietrek, Sławomir; Jasiński, Janusz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Safety of various human activities depends to a significant extent on weather conditions which are the result of physical processes in the lower layer of the atmosphere. In numerous cases, the wind field information is required in the form of vector field. Complete description of the wind field is not feasible using only the results of standard direct wind measurements even if they are made in a fairly dense measurement network. The paper presents remote sensing measurement systems which provide data for determining the horizontal and vertical components of the wind vector at variety of levels in real time. The remote sensing methods of wind measurements use the Doppler phenomenon, i.e. the relation between the meteorological object movement velocity and the difference in frequency of the original signal and the backscattered one. Results obtained using data from meteorological Doppler radars, including the E700XD mobile radars in Polish Air Bases and radiotheodolite sounding systems are presented. The processed results of measurements are presented in the form of the wind vector fields at selected levels, profiles of the vertical component of the wind vector in a defined layer of the atmosphere and vertical profiles of the wind speed changes
  • Wawruch, Ryszard (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The paper describes frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar constructed by Przemysłowy Instytut Telekomunikacji SA and installed in Gdynia Maritime University and results of its detection possibility tests conducted in real propagation conditions. Outcomes from the tests were compared with detection distances of pulse radar Raytheon NSC34 with antenna located a few meters from the investigated FMCW radar scanner position
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The methodologies, planning procedures and integrated seas and ocean routes’ programming are presented. In programming of the most convenient route current and forecasted weather conditions, criteria and restrictions, speed and fuel characteristics of ships on waves and wind, computational methods and algo-rithms, navigation aids generating a route recommendation penetrate themselves. These elements when properly identified and adopted allow the master for effective ship’s course and speed decision making
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Kaczmarek, Paweł (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Cyclones are an important limitation in the ships’ route programming. “Jawor” ship voyage from Italy do the U.S. (Baltimore) was an example where “Cyclone” program was used for effective avoidance of “Julia” and “Igor” cyclones in September 2010
  • Wielgosz, Mirosław; Wiśniewski, Bernard; Korwin-Piotrowski, Tadeusz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    Since 2009 the Polish Steamship Company has operating on its ships SPOS, which main function is receiving weather information, presentations of this information in the form of synoptic and wave maps with forecasts up to 216 hours. The second function of the system is ability to determine the Great Circle, rhumb line and navigation composite routes and the so-called optimal and recommended by the system route (Optimum High and Wide). Because for each of these routes it is possible to generate in advance ship’s position for one, two, three days and so on until the destination (usually the roadstead of the destination port), it is likely to compare the various routes. SPOS compares distances (NM), duration of voyages (days and hours), expected average speed, as well as date and time ship reaches the destination (ETA – Estimated Time of Arrival). The reliability of these data is dependent on the ship’s characteristics as a control object or ability to obtain the calm water speed (Vo) at full sea speed propeller revolutions, and reduction of vessel speed due to waves and wind. The third element affecting accuracy of a voyage plan in terms of initial estimations is the reliability of weather forecasts (waves, wind, currents, ice restrictions, fog, etc.)
  • Wiśniewski, Bernard; Wolski, Tomasz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The paper presents an analysis of the tsunami arrival time as a result of the earthquake on 11.03.2011 on the Pacific Ocean. For 91 ports arranged along coasts of Pacific, one counted theoretical arrival times of the tsunami and compared it with data real noted on water level gauges of West Coast / Alaska Tsunami Warning Center. Change of the coefficient in the formula for the wave arrival time from 5.0 to 4.72 as the average factor for the ports lying directly on the open ocean waters was proposed. This is of practical importance for the possible procedures to improve forecasting and warning system for tsunami, which are important in maintaining the safety of navigation in the coastal zone of the ocean
  • Zalewski, Paweł (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2012)
    The paper presents an algorithm of recommended waterway parameters determination based on relationships derived from actual empirical research (a combination of PIANC and Canadian methods). These relationships are mostly discontinuous functions (e.g.: of ship type variable, speed, method of determining the position, etc.), which can be approximated by continuous spline functions. Application built in the C# allows determining the recommended minimum width of the waterway, width increase due to the accuracy of the vessel positioning method, and the radius of waterway bends for the five input variables of the ship and from ten to sixteen input variables of the area

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