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18 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, no. 18 / 2009



 

Recent Submissions

  • Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew; Magaj, Janusz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    Ship collisions belong to major hazards to the safety of navigation. This article presents a prototype navigational decision support system aimed at assisting the navigator in the process of ship conduct. The problem of choosing the right track in ship encounter situations and optimization criteria are considered. The authors present algorithms for the optimization of ship‟s route in collision situations, implemented in the navigational decision support system being developed. The description of the system operation intended to determine optimized ship movement trajectories is based on simulated ship encounters
  • Łosiewicz, Zbigniew; Pielka, Dariusz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    In the modern systems of operation monitoring and of early detection of technical condition changes, additionally to the monitoring and measuring function, there is required the analysis of information in purpose to support the operator in making decisions. Such high complexity of a problem needs application of the fast methods of analysing the information in variety of aspects. Presently, in monitoring of a marine piston diesel engine tremendous importance the methods have, which are based on artificial intelligence both in a meaning of analysis of the individual processes and in complex analysis of a whole object. Merits of the artificial intelligence methods are – high flexibility, versatility and possibility to use the object for analysis with no need to have a mathematical description of the examined object, or occurring processes, what often imposes the considerable difficulty and restrictions in examination to be carried out
  • Łosiewicz, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    In the article there are presented various operating events leading to the same consequences, i.e. permanent engine damage. The analysis has been carried out of diagnostic actions performed by the operators, of usefulness of the diagnostic systems held on these ships and the operating qualities of the latest diagnostic systems in respect of possibility to prevent the described consequences of operating events
  • Soliwoda, Jarosław; Burciu, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    The success of Search and Rescue action depends on the large number of different factors such as accident characteristics, environmental conditions and human factor. Accident characteristics and environmental conditions are outer controlled factors which have to be considered with respect to the action success assessment. The preparation and conducting of the SAR action can be the decisive factors of action success. Nowadays the organization of SAR action entirely depends on the coordinator decisions. His knowledge, experience and attitudes are the critical factors for the action success. The paper presents the influence of the coordinator attitudes on SAR action efficiency and idea of a decisional model with respect to the tasks of the coordinator. The basic human attitudes to take a risk: aversion to risk, neutrality and predisposition to take a risk have been studie
  • Kravtsov, Yu; Raev, M.; Skvortsov, E.I. (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    Two polarization mobile X-band radar IKI-2M, developed by Space Research Institute, Russ. Acad. Sci., has sufficiently high resolution of order 5–7 m both in distance and in azimuthally direction and is able to study sufficiently small details of the sea surface. This paper outlines the results of the sea surface observations, performed in 2008 in Gelendzhik, the Black Sea, at low grazing angles. Using radar images of the sea surface, presented in “time-distance” format, two kinds of wave breaking were observed: traditional “macro-breakings”, answering to long gravity waves, and “micro-breakings”, which correspond to small-scale breaking waves of meso-scale (decimeter) range, which never were registered by radar so far. These two kinds of wave-breakings differ by their intensities, velocities of movement, life-times and polarization characteristic. “Macro-breakings” are produced by long gravity waves with velocities, exceeding 5–8 m/s. They demonstrate rather long life-times about 10–20 s and sufficiently high radar cross-section up to 5–10 m2. In distinction to the “macro-breakings”, the “micro-breakings” are generated by slow meso-waves with velocities about 0.5–2.5 m/s. They do not produce the foam, have short life-time about 2–3 s and sometimes demonstrate very high radar cross-section up to several m2. Both types of breaking waves may produce significant clatter for marine radar and should be taken into account in solution of problems, connected with the safety of navigation and shipping
  • Gucma, Lucjan; Gucma, Stanisław; Gucma, Maciej (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    First LNG import terminal on the Baltic Sea will be located in Poland at the outer port of Świnoujście. Safe entrance to the port of LNG carrier (vessel of length abt. 300 m) to the terminal requires considering of technical and navigational aspects, as well as fulfilment of series of safety criteria related to manoeuvring, mooring and unloading of LNG C carrier (LNGC). Complex manoeuvring, mooring and unloading safety assessment of LNG in port, might be done as an assessment of particular types of manoeuvres and exploitation operations. Paper describes all those aspects and show procedure of LNG terminal design with navigational and operational problems consideration
  • Przywarty, Marcin (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    The paper presents the review and the comparison of the existing models of ships–ship collision. It also presents assumptions and preliminary results of collision model developed in Institute of Marine Traffic Engineering in Szczecin
  • Puszcz, Agnieszka; Gucma, Lucjan; Gucma, Maciej (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    The paper presents research on the actual ferry crossing traffic in Świnoujście by using laser measurement system. The aim of this study was to determine safety of coexistence crossing ferry and modernized ferry stand No. 6 of Sea Ferry Terminal in Świnoujście and verification simulation studies carried out in 1996 by Marine Traffic Engineering Institute
  • Chybowski, Leszek; Grzebieniak, Robert (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    Paper presents characteristics of selected marine and traction engines governor test stands. Test stands manu-factured by Woodward Governor and Regulateurs Europa have been presented. State-of-art of modern speed governor test stands functionality has been shown
  • Klyus, Oleh (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    W artykule przedstawiono badania teoretyczne okresu opóźnienia samozapłonu w silnikach z zapłonem samoczynnym, zwrócono uwagę na powiązanie tego okresu z energią aktywacji, obniżenie której związane jest z zastosowaniem katalizatorów, co warunkuje umiejscowienie materiałów katalitycznych we wtryskiwaczach paliwowych i może doprowadzić do zwiększenia ekonomicznych i ekologicznych parametrów pracy silników
  • Kobyliński, Lech; Nowicki, Jacek; Oleksy, Jerzy; Jaworski, Tomasz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    Tanker casualties cause often serious environment pollution with disastrous effects. The important issue is to perform successful salvage operation and in order to do so, it is necessary to forecast the exact position of the disabled ship at each point of time. Programme of research was installed in the Ilawa Ship Handling Research and Training Centre (SHRT) with the aim to develop a computer code for prediction of the path of disabled tankers after casualty in various damage conditions, partially flooded or broken down in parts. Those are realistic situations that may happen after collision or serious damage to the hull as did show casualties of tankers ERICA or PRESTIGE. Mathematical model of ship drifting motion under the influence of wind, waves and sea current was developed that, requires, however, knowledge of force coefficients, in particular hydrodynamic and aerodynamic force coefficients for damaged ship. Model tests intended to estimate these coefficients were performed in the towing tank where the model was in different damaged conditions. Developed computer code is intended to be validated by tests of the large model in semi-natural scale in natural wind and waves on the lake. Suitable testing methodology and measuring system were developed and preliminary tests were performed in the lake Silm in SHRT where the model was drifting freely in intact condition or with partially flooded compartments, heavily trimmed to the bow
  • Adamkiewicz, Andrzej; Kołwzan, Krzysztof (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    On 19 May 2005 entered into force new Annex VI of MARPOL Convention – Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships and NOX Technical Code for Diesel Engines. In October 2008 at its 58th session the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee has been adopted the revisions of actual air pollution prevention requirements. Revised requirements will enter into force on 1 July 2010. This paper presents significant among the revisions which are the phased-in reductions for NOX and SOX emissions and the extended application of NOX emission limits to existing engines;Kołwzan, Krzysztof;Adamkiewicz, Andrzej
  • Pleszko, Joanna (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    Made to identify and assess factors determining the quality of the utility of frozen fish in cold chain, taking into account the output quality frozen products. Organoleptic characteristics were analyzed frozen fish products, the selection of appropriate packaging and freezing techniques and increasing the added value of frozen fish products. Describes methods to help preserve the quality of frozen fish. Into account the results of the audit in the first quarter of 2009 by IJHARS the physicochemical parameters, labeling and packaging, and organoleptic characteristics of the randomly selected industrial enterprises. It was found that the marketing value-added frozen fish products is difficult to estimate and depends on subjective evaluations of consumers
  • Montewka, Jakub; Kujala, Pentti; Ylitalo, Jutta (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    Navigational risk assessment is a complex process, which aims to determine the level of safety over the analyzed area. Usually two approaches are used: qualitative and quantitative. Engineers tend to view risk in an objective way in relation to safety, and as such use the concept of risk as an objective safety criteria. Among engineers risk is defined as a product of probability of occurrence of an undesired event and the expected consequences in terms of human, economic and environmental loss. These two components are equally important therefore appropriate estimation of these values is a matter of great significance. This paper deals with one of these two components: the probability of vessels‟ collision assessment. A new approach for probability estimation of collision between vessels is presented, rooted in aviation experiences. The presented model for collision frequency estimation takes into account historical traffic data from AIS, generalized vessel dynamics and uses advanced statistical and optimization methods (Monte-Carlo, Genetic Algorithms)
  • Klyus, Oleh; Krajniuk, A.I (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    Przedstawiono nowy sposób organizacji procesu roboczego kombinowanego systemu doładowania silników spalinowych z kaskadowym wymiennikiem ciśnienia, umożliwiający znaczący wzrost poziomu wysilenia sil-nika przy doładowaniu, ze względu na zwiększenie obszaru efektywnej wymiany ładunku oraz schłodzenia powietrza doładowującego do temperatur poniżej temperatury otoczenia bez strat energii mechanicznej na re-alizację cyklu chłodzenia. Przedstawiono metodyki wyboru podstawowych parametrów kaskadowego wy-miennika ciśnienia oraz ocenę możliwości chłodzenia systemu. Podano wyniki badań analitycznych i ekspe-rymentalnych systemu doładowania silnika 6ЧН12/14. Przedstawiono mechanizm zwiększenia efektywności schłodzenia powietrza doładowującego przy wzroście temperatury gazu ściskającego
  • Ciechanowski, Grzegorz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    The article describes activities of Polish Special Military Unit in the Middle East which took part in the Second United Nations Emergency Force in Egypt – UNEF II in the period 1973–1979. There are presented traditions of Polish military service in the multinational commissions in Korea, Indochina and Nigeria in the period 1953–1973. The history of Polish military contingent in UNEF II is the main body of the article. Polish Army the first time was ordered to set up a battalion sized military unit to UN mission. It was big organizational and logistic challenge. The main part of contingent‟s supply transporting was realized by Polish vessels. They were build in Szczecin shipyard. The activity description is a second part of the article
  • Marczak, Elżbieta (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    Ship is a sample of object where there are special demands with reference to man‟s protection. It is connected with spatial relations between technical solutions used on the vessels (where using of modern electronically aided tools result in production of ships which are quicker, safer, useful for transportation of different types of cargo for longer distances) and level of human immunity and possibilities of adopting to factors influencing that environment. Recently more attention was paid to the fact that vessels are not just means of conveyance but also a place of work and rest. Human body with its properties became a benchmark to which there were subordinated functional-spatial solutions. To fulfil the task there were taken into consideration: domination of design branch, high level of automatization, trends for decreasing of working costs, threats of pirates and terrorists strikes and work safety and fire regulations. The aim for that is to assure safety for crew, passengers, freight and environment in aspect of completing conditions given by regulations of marine organisations and administration
  • Adamkiewicz, Andrzej; Burnos, Arkadiusz (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    The article justifies the need for diagnostics in the maintenance of gas turbine engines in power systems of vessels for production, handling and storage (FPSO type – Floating Production, Storage and Off-loading). It also presents basic features and specifications of turbine engines used on these units as well as methods of obtaining diagnostic information in the maintenance of turbine engines. Parameters of diagnostic signal models (heat-flow, vibroacoustic and exhaust emissions) and methods of their measurement have been identified. Methods of application of on- and off-line data for maintenance purposes have been diversifie
  • Hirrle, A; Engler, E. (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    For satellite based navigation within maritime applications, the IMO defines requirements for further GNSS systems (IMO, 2002). In order to meet e.g. the demands for automatic docking (absolute accuracy: 0.1 m horizontal, integrity: 0.25 m Alert Limit, 10 s Time to Alarm, 10E–5 Integrity Risk (per 3 h), accurate code and phase measurements are essential. As these measurements are distorted by effects of various error sources, efficient error detection and correction are of main interest. This paper presents the idea of describing the influence of error sources in both, time and frequency domain to derive a competent basis for evaluating the signal‟s quality and detecting outliers. This offers a fundament for signal classification (usable, unusable), prediction of signal states and error correction and thus the compliance with the given requirements. First a description of the used analysis method, the Hilbert Huang Transform is given. By means of data recorded at Tromsoe/Norway and Rostock/Germany, first results are discusse
  • Klyus, Oleh; Krajniuk, A.I; Krajniuk, A.A (Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 2009)
    Przedstawiono nowy sposób organizacji cyklu roboczego urządzenia do bezpośredniego przekształcenia cie-pła w pracę powietrza sprężonego, na zasadzie kaskadowej wymiany ciśnienia. Przedstawiono wstępne wyni-ki wyboru podstawowych wymiarów i parametrów konstrukcyjnych sprężarki cieplnej kaskadowego wy-miennika ciśnienia oraz warunki jego pracy. Podane są kierunki doskonalenia cyklu roboczego sprężarek cieplnych kaskadowego wymiennika ciśnienia

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