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01 Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, no. 1 / 2004



 

Recent Submissions

  • Orymowska, Joanna; Sobkowicz, Paulina (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Navigational safety of inland vessels in the Międzyodrze and Szczeciński Węzeł Wodny area
  • Trzeciak, Stefan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    On the basis of available literaturę a profile was madę of hydrometeoro-logical conditions dangerous for navigation in the Polish Coastal zonę of the Baltic There have been discussed stormy winds, seaway. fog, ice conditions. atmospheric precipitation and their effect on the accident ratę of fishing boats
  • Monieta, Jan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Podano wyniki oceny procesu eksploatacji silników napędu prądnic typu 6AL20/24 trzech typów masowców. Wyodrębniono 4 stany procesu eksploatacji i skupiono się na czasie użytkowania efektywnego. Dla tego stanu wyznaczono wybrane wskaźniki takie jak: średni czas użytkowania efektywnego w ciągu doby. miesiąca, roku oraz wskaźnik użytkowania efektywnego.
  • (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Oddajemy w ręce czytelnika pierwszy numer Zeszytów Naukowych Wyższej Szkoły Morskiej w Szczecinie. W wydaniu tym zamieszczono szereg prac naukowych z różnych dziedzin związanych z gospodarką morską, o różnym zakresie badań, i formie opracowania zgodnie z kierunkiem działalności uczelni. Jest to tylko niepełny przegląd dokonanych osiągnięć naukowych w pierwszym okresie istnienia WSM w Szczecinie. W przyszłości wydawane będą oddzielne Zeszyty Naukowe uprofilowane dla zagadnień nautycznych, połowowych, mechaniki okrętowej oraz dyscyplin podstawowych. Wydanie pierwszego z Zeszytów Naukowych zbiegło się z Rokiem Nauki Polskiej i jest wyrazem zamierzeń intensywnego rozwoju badań naukowych Wyższej Szkoły Morskiej w Szczecinie. Redakcja żywi nadzieje, że ten pierwszy krok naszej uczelni w prezentacji dorobku naukowego zostanie życzliwie przyjęty przez Czytelników.
  • (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Table of content
  • Abramek, Karol Franciszek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents the influence of a change in the number of rings on blow-by in-to the crankcase of a single-cylinder engine SB-3.1. Blow-by-speed characteristics were made for idle running.
  • Behrendt, Сezary; Motorny, Anatoly (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The factor of thermal efficiency, used for the assessement of the use of heat in the diesel engine working cycles, has been based on the the first law of thermodynamics only. This paper indicates the fact that to achieve more comprehensive thermodynamic analyses it is necessary to use factors based on the two laws of thermodynamics. One such factor herein proposed is the exoergic efficiency. The method for the determination of this factor for the main engine is presented. Original relations involving the exoergic efficiency are set out. The factor depends on the ambient temperature.
  • Bejger, Artur (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents the results of acoustic emission signals application for diagnos-ing defects detecting signal sources in the fuel injection system of marine diesel engines. Changes of acoustic emission signals are sensitive to the working of the injection pump and the condition of injectors. The emitted signals are dependent on their technical con-dition.
  • Kirkiewicz, Józef; Bieg, Bohdan; Krogulec, Marcin (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    For many years the analysis of concentration residual hydrocarbon and oil in sam-ples of water and soil has been performed using transmission infrared spectroscopy. However, this method will have to be modified due to the prohibition of the use of car-bon tetrachloride, used as a solvent in this method. Another method of measuring the absorption of infrared radiation is horizontal attenuated total reflection( HATR), where benzene could be used as a solvent. A description of the HATR method, its advantages and disadvantages are presented.
  • Bielawski, Piotr (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Requirements that sensors used in diagnostic systems must meet are defined. The sensors currently available are characterised. The possibilities of obtaining special sensors for diagnosing machines with piston-connecting rod mechanisms are presented.
  • Bobrowski, Zbigniew; Kravtsov, Yury A.; Chmiel, Jarosław; Transportu, Zakład Techniki i Technologii (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    A self-oscillating ultrasonic system is suggested for monitoring deformations in ship hulls. The system employs high frequency (about 1 MHz) ultrasounds exciting the hull material. Stress changes manifest themselves in small but detectable variations of frequency in the self-oscillating system. The suggested system can be applied for continuous stress changes monitoring in high seas as well as in nearly fully laden ship conditions.
  • Borkowski, Tadeusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    When hot exhaust gas is mixed with inlet air, the charge to a diesel engine is modi-fied in different ways: the charge temperature increases, the total charge mass is re-duced and the charge composition changes. This paper is concerned with the residual gas fraction that is usually determined by straight CO2 measurement in a sample of gas extracted from a cylinder during the compression stroke. A general zero-dimensional model for calculating the residual gas fraction in reciprocating internal combustion engines has been formulated. The model accounts for both the trapped gas in the cylin-der at top dead center and the back-flow of exhaust gas into the cylinder during the valve overlap period. The effect of EGR introduction has been discussed.
  • Bruski, Stanisław; Korczewski, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents selected results of torsional vibration measurements of propulsion shafts driven by a medium-speed Sulzer-made marine diesel engine of AL type. The research aimed to find out wheter it is possible to diagnose failures of the fuel feed system by means of torsional vibration spectral analysis. The research resulted in the author's proposal of a new diagnostic measure.
  • Brzózka, Jerzy; Szcześniak, Jerzy (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    In the paper are compared simulated diesel engine speed runs in three structures: in MFC control system with fuzzy PI controller and in two classic control systems with PI and fuzzy PI controllers. Simulations were conducted for different non-linear object model parameters with two unit step functions. The integral of the square of the error (ISE) was used for the comparison of unit step responses
  • Burnos, Tomasz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents the concept of creation of a diagnostic model of thruster based on signal estimates, generated during the operation of the aggregate. Possible use of time-frequency details for individual elements of machine are taken under consideration.
  • Chalamoński, Mariusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents problems of the diagnosis of hydraulic systems and proposes a classification of processes taking place in hydraulic systems. A hydraulic pumps as an example showing the mechanism of vibrations formation. The vibration measures can be used for diagnosing the technical condition of pumps.
  • Chybowski, Leszek; Matuszak, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Basic principles of the fault tree analysis are discussed in reference with the marine power plant. The basics of qualitative and quantitative analysis of the fault tree are presented. Principal parameters being determined and the manner of their estimation by selected methods are given.
  • Chybowski, Leszek; Matuszak, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The power-propulsion system of a ship exploring seabed was used for a simulation of the unavailability of the system. The analysis was performed on the basis of a fault tree by the upper limit approximation and with the use of the accurate calculation algorithm.
  • Dąbrowska-Kauf, Grażyna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Power industry enterprises have to implement quality management systems in order tobe competitive on the European power market. The article outlines the establishment of quality system documentation according to standards of ISO 9000 – 2000 series, in particular the compiling of procedures of quality assurance in electrical power equip-ment repairs and investments in the power industry.
  • Diachenko, Sergei; Zagatskii, Vladimir; Pukhov, Vladimir (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This case study, involving a ship of the STRM type, has shown that increased vibra-tions in crew accommodations to a large extent depend on stresses exerted by the screw propeller. It has been found that the frequency of propeller blades and its second har-monic have the largest effect on ship hull. The amplitudes of the first and fourth order stresses were calculated.
  • Dobrociński, Stanisław; Jurczak, Wojciech; Szturomski, Bogdan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article provides a comprehensive solution of an operating problem of a land-lift truck. The problem is that the base beneath the track gave way causing damage to lift tracks' wheels.
  • Dobrociński, Stanisław; Szturomski, Bogdan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This work is a continuation of the article “Possible Applications of Belzon's compo-sites to repair and modernise docking facilities”. The research aimed at measurements at the edges of rails of a land (dock) lift used for horizontal track of undocked vessels. The results were used to determine the state of stress at the land edge of the lift rail, mounded on damaged concrete. The MSC MARC system was used for calculations.
  • Guerman-Gałkin, Serguei; Hrynkiewicz, Jarosław; Jendrzejczak, Tomasz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents principles of simulations of ship electrical systems featuring new software such as MatLAB, MatCAD and other programs.
  • Girtler, Jerzy (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper contains a formal description of ship propulsion system operation process. The model of the process is presented in the form of two-dimensional stochastic process of which coordinates are semi-MArkov processes of the final states set. The former process describes the process of changes in technical states of ship propulsion systems, the latter - the process of changes in their operating states a monovariate model of ship propulsion systems operation process has also been proposed.
  • Grudziński, Jerzy (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents the results of an analysis of the phenomena that take place during the process of filtration of the oil-in-water emulsion (oil droplet diameter <5m) in the coalescence unwoven fabric filter. The flow of the oil–water mixture through the unwoven fabric filter barrier has been analyzed. Moreover, the effectiveness of the filtra-tion and the size of oil droplets have been examined. The research results have been presented graphically. The distribution of oil particle sizes and filtration effectiveness have been determined with the use of a Malvern instrument.
  • Grządziel, Zenon; Kaczmarek, Jacek; Nicewicz, Grzegorz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The method and results of the simulation of the most essential rheological proper-ties of vibration mounts are presented. The simulation was carried out by means of a NASTRAN 3.0 demo version.
  • Jaźwiński, Jerzy; Smalko, Zbigniew; Żurek, Józef (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This work deals with a transport system characterized by reliability understood as the probability of non-occurrence of failure and operating reliability understood as the probability of task execution. Relations between the above mentioned reliability measures in the man–object–environment system are taken into consideration. Some computational examples are presented and conclusions formulated.
  • Kaczmarek, Jacek; Nicewicz, Grzegorz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Identification methods of some rheological properties of vibration mounts for vibra-tion isolation systems are presented. The identification enables simulation of nonlinear problems in vibration isolation systems in steady and transient operational states by means of the finite element method.
  • Kaleta, Ryszard (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    A method of determining reliability rates from real life experience has been pre-sented in this paper. Then, reliability rates have been classified. Besides, a method of presentation of reliability rates together with the evaluation of the tendency of their changes has also been put forward. Some principles of increasing the accuracy of relia-bility rates in accordance with current information havebeen given. There is also an example of how to determine function rates. Finally, the author has formulated conclu-sions.
  • Kantalinskii, Valerii; Patrakeeva, Elena (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article discusses the results of using waste gas heat from heat power plant boilers. The authors suggest working out rational schemes adaptation for heat-surfaces staying in boiler’s air-gas path. There is showed principle possibility of condensation and low-temperature save heat exchangers use on ship power plants.
  • Kirkiewicz, Józef (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Theoretical principles of the light scattering theory with a focus on energy distribu-tions within the Rayleigh and Raman ranges are presented. The relation between the shape of the angle distribution of scattered energy and the magnitudes of particles is indicated. On the basis of measurements of the scattering of a stream of light, the author presents a structure of the appliance which enables measurements of the air or gases pollution intensity and the estimation of the magnitudes of the pollution particles.
  • Kirkiewicz, Józef; Bieg, Bohdan; Pikuła, Ryszard; Krogulec, Marcin; Chrzanowski, Janusz; Krasnodębska, Anna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The process of progressive degradation of natural environment of the Baltic Sea and the Odra River caused by oil products has been presented. The authors describe the examined area and measurement techniques. The mean values of oil contamination of the Odra River superficial layer have been calculated on the basis of measurements carried out for many years. Besides, the distribution of the oil pollution of water in the perpendicular cross-section at selected points of the Odra River has been presented.
  • Kirkiewicz, Józef; Chrzanowski, Janusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Air pollution, especially dust pollution resulting from shipboard air-conditioning and ventilation are discussed. The criteria to be satisfied by ship dust collectors are specified. Besides, ship dusters are classified according to the principle of operation. The investigation of operating efficiency of chosen ship dusters uses the method of microanalysis of recovered dust as a comparative criterion. Typical advantages and disadvantages of ship dusters, including two–stage dusters, are pointed out.
  • Klewski, Andrzej; Sanecki, Józef; Sacha, Piotr (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article deals with the latest developments in the thermal technology used for equipment diagnosis. According to the authors, the turn of the century started a new age of the technology of the thermal imaging systems and their availability. Infrared cameras have been significantly miniaturized, are easy to use and create high resolution real-time image. Thermal measurements can be done from a safe distance, even if the equipment is under load. These features make a thermal camera a perfect tool for technical condition monitoring.
  • Klyus, Oleh; Vasil'ev, Igor (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The рaper considers fuels generated from crops rotation producing oils for applica-tion in diesel engines. Experimental data is given on application of various oils mixed with diesel fuel in diesel engines with a swirl chamber.
  • Korczewski, Zbigniew (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents some experimental research results concerning the exhaust flow process in a passage feeding the pulsatory supercharging system of a four-stroke marine engine Sulzer 6AL20/24. The investigation aimed to identify gas dynamic pro-cesses taking place in a separated control gas space of the passage. The gas dynamic identification is intended for diagnosis of a cylinder system as well as a turbocharger carried out in operating conditions of such engines.
  • Korczewski, Zbigniew; Łutowicz, Marek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper discusses a method of an approximation of the results of the compression process examined on 6AL20/24 Sulzer engine cylinders. The approximation has been carried out by means of an exponential function. The method allows to determine the TDC position, initial pressure as well as compression pressure when the ignition comes before TDC.
  • Krasowski, Paweł (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper shows an analytical method of determining friction forces and their components in a slide bearing. The considerations refer of a crosshead bearing in an internal combustion crosshead engine. The friction forces consist of two components. One represents the Poseuille flow and the other represents the Couette flow. The analyt-ic solution of Reynolds equation is used for a bearing with infinite breadth, lubricated by oil with constant viscosity. The determined pressure and tangent tension, friction forces and their components are presented in the dimensionless form.
  • Korczewski, Zbigniew; Wontka, Leszek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    A laboratory test stand of S312C diesel engine can be used for diagnosing the engine bearing system. Conclusions on the technical state are drawn from indicated pressure measurements at the engine running idle. They are subsequently converted into the power of mechanical losses as a parameter characterising dissipation of energy carried into the engine from feeding air and fuel.
  • Krogulec, Marcin (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    There are many factors which influence the concentration of suspension in sea wa-ter. These includethe distance from the estuary, geological structure of the shore and seabed, direction and speed of tidal current and drift, as well as wave height. The results of research presented in the article show the effect of the wind force on the sedimenta-tion in offshore areas of water reservoirs.
  • Krupicz, Bazyli (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Erosion wear of a fan rotor blade is analysed in the paper. The calculated values of contact stresses show than mechanisms of destruction my exist during: !) perpendicular impact, 2) slip with participation of fiction forces. Materials used in the paper in conditions of stream-abrasive erosion should have potentially high tield field and low. Young's modulus.
  • Krupowies, Jan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    On the basis of many years’ extensive operational research of the condition of vari-ous kinds of lubricating oils from Western companies, the values and change frequency of these oils’ service parameters have been analyzed and estimated during their opera-tional use in auxiliary marine piston engines.
  • Monieta, Jan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper the contains results of operational investigations of marine diesel engine sub-assemblies (engine type 6AL20/24), manufactured under Sulzer licence. Presented are fundamental kinds of failures and wear of injectors as well as examples of their effects for the technical state of engines.
  • Patejuk, Aleksy (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This research was concerned with the investigation of microstructure and selected mechanical properties of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-3Mo-2Cr after plasma nitriding process-es. The influence of surface state and the nitriding method on selected mechanical prop-erties of examined alloy was investigated. It was found that that the level of fatigue strength of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-3Mo-2Cr depends significantly on top layer state of examined samples (machines' elements).
  • Patejuk, Aleksy; Krupicz, Bazyli (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The results of research on selected mechanical properties of composite material on the matrix of intermetallic phase Fe-Al reinforced with Al2O3 particles are presented. The influence of particle quantity and size on tribologic properties of selected composite material was examinedas well as the influence of resistance on erosion wear of the ma-terial was investigated. Significant improvement of properties was recorded in the com-posite material reinforced with Al2O3 particles with nickel layer placed on their surface.
  • Patejuk, Aleksy; Sobiecki, Jerzy Robert (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This research focused on the examination of the microstructure and useful proper-ties of martensitic steel H9S2 subjected to plasma nitriding processes. The influence of process parameters such as the temperature and gas composition on micro-hardness, corrosion and wear was investigated. The application of plasma nitriding processes significantly increases the micro-hardness and wear resistance.
  • Pukhov, Vladimir (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The present article is devoted to the results of calculation of ZD72/48 type (of dif-ferent models – with and without undercut) engine atomizers in tense-deformed condi-tion by the finite elements method. Besides, the article deals with the influence of heat and mechanical loads and design features on the atomizer body deformation for that type of engine.
  • Rajewski, Przemysław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper contains the results of research on viscosity, calorific value of the residual fuel, centrifugal sludge, centrifugal sludge and residual fuel mixtures, in view of possible use of such mixtures as ship boiler fuel.
  • Stachowiak, Marian (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents a mathematical model for the heat exchange process in a fresh water-cooling system of a low-speed diesel engine. The model describes both stationary and dynamic engine operating conditions. The model is applied in simulation of the engine cooling process. Results of the simulation are discussed.
  • Szelangiewicz, Tadeusz; Żelazny, Katarzyna (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents an algorithm for the numerical calculation of ship propulsion characteristics. The propulsion characteristics were completed with total resistance charts for given weather conditions. Alternative choices of the propulsion working point depending on assumed criteria were discussed.
  • Treichel, Piotr (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper presents basic information on wear process. The engine scavenge air system has been described and observation data have been presented. Based on trend analysis and statistic methods, mutual relations between selected parameters have been presented.
  • Tuński, Tomasz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The article presents results of one-pressure exhaust gas boilers simulation based on the static mathematical model of heat exchange. The results were verified with parame-ters registered during ships' sea trials.
  • Żmudzki, Stefan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The properties of natural gas as potential fuel for combustion engines, particularly those used for ship propulsion have been presented. The requirements for gas system, as well as gas – air mixture formation and combustion, including knocking, have been described. Taking into account the main gas engine variables, the dual fuel engine has been proposed for installation, as well as high pressure liquid natural gas system and gas injection into the engine combustion chamber.

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