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Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin,
Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie


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ISSN 1733-8670 (Printed)
ISSN 2392-0378 (Online)
DOI PREFIX 10.17402

The Scientific Journals (SJ) issued by the Maritime University of Szczecin (MUS) is a magazine which presents results of MUS research and educational activities. SJ has been published since 1973 but in 2004 it changed the ISSN from 0209-2069 to 1733-8670 as a result of MUS changing its name from Wyższa Szkoła Morska w Szczecinie to Akademia Morska w Szczecinie.

At the beginning there were several papers published in SJ and they were connected with maritime affairs. Doctoral and habilitation theses had also been published then. With time the SJ scope expanded to among others nautical issues, operation of the vessel, marine power plant operation. The magazine presented also symposium and conference proceedings.

Since 2008, the magazine has been published in A4 format with a new layout. Since 2010 the journal has been publishing the articles in English. By the end of 2014 a total of 112 Scientific Journals will have been published.

The SJ Scientific Board ensures high quality of published papers. All papers are reviewed confidentially and anonymously (double blind review) and are a subject of scientific edition.

The Scientific Journals printed version is primary.


List of Issues

Recent Submissions

  • Chybowski, Leszek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dear Readers, It is our great pleasure to present the 47 th issue of the Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin. This edition features the latest findings and research in the area of transport engineering, mari- time navigation and marine engineering. Articles in the Marine Technology and Innovation section include studies on the influence of marine power plant damage on the environment, fire safety, diagnostics of technical structures, using simulations to analyse the functioning of ship boilers as well as numerical analyses of the hydrodynamic characteristics of ducted propellers. The Navigation and Maritime Transport section includes articles addressing the use of satellite navigation systems, dynamic optimisation of safe ship trajectory, state-of-the-art techniques and tools for processing navigation data as well as navigation in emission control area zones. The section entitled Transportation Engineering includes studies addressing inland transport, benefits of using liquefied natural gas fuel in the urban transport, concepts on the protection of the internal market in road transport in European Union countries. I would also like to take this opportunity to inform you that the Scientific Journals of the Maritime Uni- versity of Szczecin has been listed in the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) in the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection, which was launched in 2015. This demonstrates that our activity in the arena of scientific pub- lishing have been recognised by Thomson Reuters specialists. This is a great honour and an important mark of quality reflecting the efforts we have made to upgrade our quarterly journal. I wish to express my gratitude to the university authorities for their support as well as appreciation for the engagement of my colleagues, members of the scientific board and reviewers. We strongly encourage authors to submit their articles and readers to provide feedback. In order to access the online version of this issue along with archived editions please visit our website http://scientific-journals. eu/.
  • Behrendt, Cezary; Rajewski, Przemysław (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    An analysis of the failures occurring in the energetic systems of Polish fi shing cutters, covering the years 1999–2012, is presented in this paper.The structural age, size and number of Polish fi shing cutters is also indi- cated herein. The eff ect of the failures on the marine environment has been assessed, taking into consideration a presumed fuel spillage depending on fi sh catch volume and an analysis of the biodegradability of various fuels. The subject of the analysis also includes the damage impact of transponders cooperating with a vessel monitoring system (VMS) on an increase of the risk of collisions between other off shore industry objects and fi shing vessels.
  • Kaszycki, Leszek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Dynamic development of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) technology and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software has resulted in their widespread usage in integrated systems of automa- tion, becoming one of the main directions of ship automation. This change justifies the need to improve the training of future crews on simulators built with the use of PLC and SCADA technologies. This paper presents a simulator prototype for selective processes ofa main-propulsion boiler’sfuel-gas-line nitrogenpurging system, applied in LNG (liquefied natural gas) ships.Control algorithms and appropriateschematic diagrams of the LNG fuel system of these processes werealso presented. A Versa Max Micro-series PLC and an InTouch 9.0 PL SCADA software were applied in construction of the simulator. As a result of simulations, a visualisation of different states of fuel line in the form of screenshots was included. Finally, the paper contains a concept for simulator development based on hardware (sensors and actuators) without significant changes in existing so- ftware; further development will providethe simulator with more similarities to a real ship system.
  • Korostil, Jerzy; Korostil, Olga (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper describes research related to the use of heuristics in diagnostic tasks of complex technical objects. To build heuristics, the use of text models for technical objects is proposed. Therefore, this paper examines output methods of heuristics from text models and their transformation into logical formulae suitable for use in diagnostic algorithms. Analysis has been carried out for tasks solved during diagnostics, and methods of using heuristics in certain tasks have been reviewed. It is proposed to use heuristics for decision making while implementing certain algorithm steps of monitoring tasks for diagnostic parameters that are solved during diagnostics.
  • Krystosik-Gromadzińska, Agata (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The paper characterizes an engine room as a place of a fire’s origin and its spread. It presents potential sources of fire and fire protection onboard. Examples of international rules and regulations are described as well. It also gives the statistics and some scenarios for fires and some recommendations for machine spaces. It presents problems of engine room fire safety, understood as a result of the analysis of different criteria. The engine room was chosen for analysis because many factors whose presence result in a fire could be found there in the way of combustible materials: fuel oil, lubrication oil, hydraulic oil and thermal oil consumed by the main engine, generator engine, boiler, thermal oil heater and hydraulic oil equipment, paints, solvents etc. Sources of po- tential fires are mainly the hot surfaces of exhaust gas pipes, turbochargers, boilers and waste oil incinerators, ignitions, sparks, static electricity etc. In addition, many engine room fires have an electrical source, such as electrical short-circuits and thermal overheating in the switchboards. Approximately 70% of fires in the engine room have typical scenarios: the outflow of combustible liquid and contact with a hot surface and can reach temperatures between 700–1000°C. They spread rapidly, their power and dynamism depending on the intensity of the outflow of the combustible liquid and its properties, but also the local conditions and the geometry of engine room as well. Fire safety in engine rooms is determined both by good design and the company’s and crew’s focus on fire prevention. Some of the recommendations are high standards of cleanliness in the engine room, regular checks of materials used for insulating high temperature surfaces, attention to fire risks when repairs and maintenance works are carried out and many other factors.
  • Monieta, Jan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This article presents selected results of investigations on adverse events of ships throughout one year. The in- vestigations included mainly merchant vessels used to transport bulk material and heavy objects. Ships have been divided into functional systems and elements and into navigational and machine parts. An attempt was made to classify the causes of accidents and evaluate material losses. The quantitative analysis of the causes of the events leads to different conclusions than those reached on the basis of the analyses of losses. Although the failures on-board the vessel occurred more frequently, the costs of machine adverse events were larger. The most critical consequences was fire of a ship caused by loosening of the bleed screw of the fuel filter. Auxiliary engines of the vessel were operated in different external and internal conditions, and were fed by distillation fuel. As a consequence, the evacuation of the crew and fire suppression were required, using the CO 2 installation of the ship. The ship was stopped and deprived of its primary sources of electric energy. An analysis of the event was along with the elaboration of a plan of preventive measures. The results should be useful for selecting the monitored diagnostic objects of vessels.
  • Razaghian, Amir Hossein; Ghassemi, Hassan (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper investigates the open-water characteristics of the 5-blade propeller with accelerating and deceler- ating ducts using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation code. In the first step, numerical open-water hydrodynamic characteristics of the propeller in the absence of a duct were validated using the available experimental data. The shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model was chosen, which shows less error in thrust and torque coefficients than others. In the second step, two accelerating and decelerating ducts, namely ducts 19A and N32, were modeled. In these simulations, the clearance value was selected at 3 percent of the propeller’s diameter and uniform-flow conditions were assumed. After analysis of the mesh sensitivity for the propeller thrust, the results were compared to the corresponding open-water condition values. In this regard, results of the hydrodynamic coefficients, pressure distribution, and coefficients on the propeller-blade surface and ducts were also analyzed and discussed.
  • Tryczak, Jakub Roman; Zeńczak, Wojciech (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Fluidized bed boilers have been widely used for many years in energetics but their application in shipbuilding has been incidental. The hydrodynamics of a fluidized bed is a complicated issue. If the swaying of a ship on a sea wave is taken into account, this issue will be further complicated. The choice of an appropriate mathemat- ical model is important from the viewpoint of building computer models for the simulation of a fluidized bed during disruptions that result from the ship swaying on sea waves. Fluidization is a two-phase flow process, which is described by many models such as the homogeneous-slip model or heterogeneous-slide model. The most popular models that show two-phase gas-solid or fluid-solid flow are the Euler-Euler and Euler-Lagrange models. The paper presents models that describe a ship’s fluidized bed.
  • Dramski, Mariusz (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The eXtensible Event Stream (XES) format is a new approach to illustrate the process data. Every ship journey is a sequence of some activities which can be read using different sources of data such ARPA, AIS etc. So we can say that this is a kind of process and its data can be organized in ordered and simple form. The most popular data formats to show the process data were of course XML and CSV. Currently, we can observe huge progress in the domain of process mining. Every year, new tools appeared and the need for some data standard became necessary. This standard is called Extensible Event Stream. In this paper, the use of XES format in navigational data is described.
  • Drwięga, Kinga; Gucma, Lucjan; Gralak, Rafał (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper presents a methodology for determining the components related to the heel of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers, excluding the heel of the vessel due to waves. The described method was applied to the description of under keel clearance of vessels approaching the outer port of Świnoujście. The method includes the determination of heel components caused by: draught reading errors, wind, current, tugboats and vessel maneuvers. Determination of the last component was carried out using a 2-stage method. In the first stage, simulation methods were used to identify the parameters of ship movement. In the second stage, the maximum heel of LNG carriers was calculated by analytical methods.
  • Januszewski, Jacek (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Currently (April 2016) uninterrupted information about a ship’s position can be obtained from specialized elec- tronic position-fixing systems, in particular, Satellite Navigation Systems (SNSs) such as GPS and GLONASS and Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBASs) such as EGNOS or WAAS. The generic name given to all the above mentioned systems is Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Many models, designed for the ship’s bridge and provided by about a dozen manufacturers, are available on the world market. In Europe, one of the most comprehensive sources of knowledge on the global GNSS market is a report published, on average, every 15 months by the European GNSS Agency GSA. Another receiver survey is published each year in the January number of the magazine “GPS World”. The detailed analysis of market report and receiver survey, possible use of EGNOS and Galileo in the maritime market, and different maritime applications of GNSS equipment are described in this paper.
  • Kasyk, Lech (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    The present article addresses the issue of crossing time on the fairway, modeling in restricted areas, where vessel traffic flow is disturbed. Data of movement time on the Świnoujście–Szczecin fairway was grouped according to ship type. The probability distributions describing the crossing time of different ship groups were analyzed. Using the Pearson chi-square goodness-of-fit and Cramer–von Mises tests it has been shown that the best distributions describing traffic time of all ship groups are the generalized extreme value distri- butions.
  • Kulbej, Eric (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    Position determination of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) depends on the stability and accuracy of the measured time. However, since satellite vehicles (SVs) travel at velocities significantly larger than the receivers and, more importantly, the electromagnetic impulses propagate through changing gravitational poten- tials, enormous errors stemming from relativity-based clock offsets would cause a position error of about 11 km to be accumulated after one day. Based on the premise of the constancy of light, two major relativistic effects are described: time dilation and gravitational-frequency shift. Following the individual interests of the author, formulas of both are scrupulously derived from general- and special-relativity theory principles; moreover, in the penultimate section, the equations are used to calculate the author’s own numerical values of the studied parameters for various GNSSs and one Land Navigation Satellite System (LNSS).
  • Lisowski, Józef (Scientific Journals Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademia Morska w Szczecinie, )
    This paper describes an application of the dynamic programming method to determine the safety of one’s own ship trajectory during encounter of other ships. A dynamic model of the process, with kinematic constraints of state and determined by a three-layer artificial neural network has been used for the development of control pro- cedures. Non-linear activation functions in the first and second layers may be characterised by a tangent curve while the output layer is of a sigmoidal nature. The Neural Network Toolbox of the Matlab software has been used to model the network. The learning process used an algorithm of backward propagation of the error with an adaptively selected learning step. The considerations have been illustrated through an example implemented in a computer simulation using the algorithm for the determination of the safe ship trajectory in situations of en- counter of multiple ships, recorded on the ship’s radar screen in real navigational situation in the Kattegat Strait.

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